Hepatitis C and the Risk of Kidney Disease and Mortality in Veterans With HIV

Department of Medicine/Section of Nephrology, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center/University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 02/2010; 53(2):222-6. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b980d4
Source: PubMed


To examine the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among veterans with HIV and to evaluate independent associations of HCV and CKD with mortality.
We studied a national cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care through the Veterans Healthcare Administration from 1998 to 2004. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)] < 60. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships between CKD, HCV, and mortality.
Among 23,155 HIV-infected veterans, 12% had CKD. Forty percent of the cohort was coinfected with HCV, and a higher proportion of coinfected subjects had CKD compared with monoinfected subjects (14% vs 11%, P < 0.001). During the median follow-up of 7.6 years, 37% of subjects died and a graduated increase in adjusted mortality rates occurred with lower levels of eGFR (P < 0.001). Adjusted mortality rates were consistently higher in HCV-coinfected subjects across all levels of eGFR (P < 0.001). HCV was independently associated with increased mortality (incidence rate ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.29).
CKD is prevalent in HIV-infected veterans and associated with substantially higher mortality. Compared with their monoinfected counterparts, veterans coinfected with HCV have significantly higher rates of CKD and mortality.

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    • "Also, the presence of HIV has a negative impact on the natural history of HCV since the progression to cirrhosis is higher in coinfected [54, 55]. HCV/HIV coinfection is associated to develop other complications, such as hematologic disorders [56, 57], kidney disease [58, 59], cardiovascular disease [60, 61], and neurologic status [62–65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: NATURAL HISTORY OF HCV RELATED CHRONIC HEPATITIS IS INFLUENCED AND MODIFIED BY MANY FACTORS: virus features, coinfections and host characteristics. In particular, a peculiar genetic background of the host by conditioning the occurrence of intracellular metabolic derangements (i.e., insulin resistance) might contribute to accelerate the rate of progression to cirrhosis and eventually the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. Likely, direct interplays between virus genotype and host genetic background might be hypothesized at this level. Morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis is primarily associated with complications of liver cirrhosis (ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, and gastroesophageal bleeding) and HCC occurrence. Therefore the main goal of therapy is to clear viral infection and decrease liver necro-inflammation that directly relates to development of cirrhosis and HCC. Among patients treated with Interferon-based therapy, those with sustained viral response showed a significant reduction of progression to cirrhosis and development of HCC. However, a residual risk of hepatocellular carcinoma still remains indicating the need for careful follow-up using ultrasonography every six months in cirrhotic patients, even in those showing persistently normal ALT and undetectable HCV RNA levels after antiviral therapy.
    11/2011; 2011:314301. DOI:10.4061/2011/314301
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    • "A meta-analysis of 24 observational studies and clinical trials found that HCV co-infection is associated with increased HIV-related kidney disease risk, including proteinuria and acute renal failure, compared to HIV monoinfection [56]. A large retrospective study of HIV-infected veterans also found that HCV co-infection was associated with higher chronic kidney disease rates; HCV prevalence increased with worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [57]. The largest study of biopsy-proven renal disease found that HIV/HCV-associated nephropathies reduced survival compared to HCV monoinfection [58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: World-wide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for approximately 130 million chronic infections, with an overall 3% prevalence. Four to 5 million persons are co-infected with HIV. It is well established that HIV has a negative impact on the natural history of HCV, including a higher rate of viral persistence, increased viral load, and more rapid progression to fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and death. Whether HCV has a negative impact on HIV disease progression continues to be debated. However, following the introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, the survival of coinfected individuals has significantly improved and HCV-associated diseases have emerged as the most important co-morbidities. In this review, we summarize the newest studies regarding the pathogenesis of HIV/HCV coinfection, including effects of coinfection on HIV disease progression, HCV-associated liver disease, the immune system, kidney and cardiovascular disease, and neurologic status; and effectiveness of current anti-HIV and HCV therapies and proposed new treatment strategies.
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports 03/2011; 8(1):12-22. DOI:10.1007/s11904-010-0071-3 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown that hepatitis C does not increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it is not known if hepatitis C worsens progression of existing CKD. We retrospectively identified patients with primary glomerulonephritis on biopsy over 4 years, evaluating the progression of CKD over time. The cohort consisted of 111 patients: 21% were positive for hepatitis C, 61% were negative for hepatitis C and 18% were not tested. The hepatitis C-positive subjects were more likely to be African American (p = 0.031), followed for fewer days (p = 0.007) and have diabetes and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on biopsy (p < 0.001). Longitudinal follow-up of CKD progression using multiple creatinine measures analyzed by repeated measures ANCOVA demonstrated that patients with hepatitis C had a worsening creatinine over time compared to the hepatitis C-negative and not tested groups (p < 0.001). By Cox hazards regression analyses, risk of death/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was decreased in patients who tested negative for hepatitis C compared to testing positive (0.46, CI 0.27-0.88), but this became nonsignificant after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and hemoglobin. Our results support that infection with hepatitis C in patients with glomerulonephritis is associated with an increased risk of progression of CKD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations.
    American Journal of Nephrology 10/2010; 32(4):311-6. DOI:10.1159/000319456 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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