Superior sensitivity of novel molecular imaging probe: simultaneously targeting two types of endothelial injury markers.
ABSTRACT The need remains great for early diagnosis of diseases. The special structure of the eye provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive light-based imaging of fundus vasculature. To detect endothelial injury at the early and reversible stage of adhesion molecule up-regulation, we generated novel imaging agents that target two distinct types of endothelial molecules, a mediator of rolling, P-selectin, and one that mediates firm adhesion, ICAM-1. Interactions of these double-conjugated fluorescent microspheres (MSs) in retinal or choroidal microvasculature were visualized in live animals by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. The new imaging agents showed significantly higher sensitivity for detection of endothelial injury than singly conjugated MSs (rPSGL-1- or alpha-ICAM-1-conjugated), both in terms of rolling (P<0.01) and firm adhesion (P<0.01). The rolling flux of alpha-ICAM-1-conjugated MSs did not differ in EIU animals, whereas double-conjugated MSs showed significantly higher rolling flux (P<0.01), revealing that ICAM-1 in vivo supports rolling, once MS interaction with the endothelium is initiated. Double-conjugated MSs specifically detected firmly adhering leukocytes (P<0.01), allowing in vivo quantification of immune response. Antiinflammatory treatment with dexamethasone led to reduced leukocyte accumulation (P<0.01) as well as MS interaction (P<0.01), which suggests that treatment success and resolution of inflammation is quantitatively reflected with this molecular imaging approach. This work introduces novel imaging agents for noninvasive detection of endothelial injury in vivo. Our approach may be developed further to diagnose human disease at a much earlier stage than currently possible.
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ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for early diagnosis in medicine, whereupon effective treatments could prevent irreversible tissue damage. The special structure of the eye provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive light-based imaging of ocular fundus vasculature. To detect endothelial injury at the early and reversible stage of adhesion molecule upregulation, some novel imaging agents that target retinal endothelial molecules were generated. In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases or screening disease in early stages, identifying extent of disease, selecting disease and patient-specific therapeutic treatment, applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation such as endoscopes and microcatheters suggest that these molecular imaging modalities have numerous clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2012; 2012:429387.
Article: VAP-1-mediated M2 macrophage infiltration underlies IL-1β- but not VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) contributes to inflammatory and angiogenic diseases, including cancer and age-related macular degeneration. It is expressed in blood vessels and contributes to inflammatory leukocyte recruitment. The cytokines IL-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) modulate angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and leukocyte infiltration. The lymphatic endothelium expresses intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1, which facilitate leukocyte transmigration into the lymphatic vessels. However, whether lymphatics express VAP-1 and whether they contribute to cytokine-dependent lymph- and angiogenesis are unknown. We investigated the role of VAP-1 in IL-1β- and VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis using the established corneal micropocket assay. IL-1β increased VAP-1 expression in the inflamed cornea. Our in vivo molecular imaging revealed significantly higher VAP-1 expression in neovasculature than in the preexisting vessels. VAP-1 was expressed in blood but not lymphatic vessels in vivo. IL-1β-induced M2 macrophage infiltration and lymph- and angiogenesis were blocked by VAP-1 inhibition. In contrast, VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis were unaffected by VAP-1 inhibition. Our results indicate a key role for VAP-1 in lymph- and angiogenesis-related macrophage recruitment. VAP-1 might become a new target for treatment of inflammatory lymph- and angiogenic diseases, including cancer.American Journal Of Pathology 04/2011; 178(4):1913-21. · 4.89 Impact Factor