Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160-7417, USA.
Pharmacological reviews (Impact Factor: 17.1). 03/2010; 62(1):1-96. DOI: 10.1124/pr.109.002014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) alpha and beta] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory factors that influence transporter expression and function, including transcriptional activation and post-translational modifications as well as subcellular trafficking. Sex differences, ontogeny, and pharmacological and toxicological regulation of transporters are also addressed. Transporters are important transmembrane proteins that mediate the cellular entry and exit of a wide range of substrates throughout the body and thereby play important roles in human physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and toxicology.

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    • "OCT-mediated transport is generally considered electrogenic and independent from sodium. The primary driving force is supplied simply by the electrochemical gradient of the transported compounds or the electronegative membrane potential (Klaassen and Aleksunes, 2010; Zamek-Gliszczynski et al., 2013). However, in recently published studies OCT-mediated transport was also described to occur via cation exchange (Budiman et al., 2000; Pelis et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin (MET) as an emerging contaminant has been detected in surface water and wastewater in numerous countries, due to insufficient retention in classical waste water treatment plants. In order to characterize the uptake of the compound during phytotreatment of waste water, a short term Pitman chamber experiment was carried out to assess the characteristics of MET uptake and transport by roots. Three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mmolL(-)(1)) were applied to cattail (Typha latifolia) and reed (Phragmites australis) roots which were used to investigate the uptake mechanism because they are frequently utilized in phytoremediation. In addition, quinidine was used as an inhibitor to assess the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the uptake of MET by T. latifolia. The transport process of MET is different from carbamazepine (CBZ) and caffeine (CFN). In both T. latifolia and P. australis, the uptake processes were independent of initial concentrations. Quinidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transporters, can significantly affect MET uptake by T. latifolia roots with inhibition ratios of 70-74%. Uptake into the root could be characterized by a linear model with R(2) values in the range of 0.881-0.999. Overall, the present study provides evidence that MET is taken up by plant roots and has the potential for subsequent translocation. OCTs could be one of the important pathways for MET uptake into the plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 05/2015; 134:307-312. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.072 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "In vitro drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies performed as part of the development program indicated that pradigastat has the potential to inhibit the activity of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, and organic anion transporter-3 (OAT3). BCRP is an efflux transporter highly expressed on the apical membranes of intestinal enterocytes and hepatocytes, whereas OATP1B1/OATP1B3 and OAT3 are uptake transporters that facilitate the uptake of substrates from blood into hepatocytes and renal proximal tubule cells, respectively [3] [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: An in vitro drugdrug interaction (DDI) study was performed to assess the potential for pradigastat to inhibit breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), and organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) transport activities. To understand the relevance of these in vitro findings, a clinical pharmacokinetic DDI study using rosuvastatin as a BCRP, OATP, and OAT3 probe substrate was conducted. Methods: The study used cell lines that stably expressed or over-expressed the respective transporters. The clinical study was an open-label, single sequence study where subjects (n = 36) received pradigastat (100 mg once daily x 3 days thereafter 40 mg once daily) and rosuvastatin (10 mg once daily), alone and in combination. Results: Pradigastat inhibited BCRP-mediated efflux activity in a dose-dependent fashion in a BCRP over-expressing human ovarian cancer cell line with an IC(50) value of 5 μM. Similarly, pradigastat inhibited OATP1B1, OATP1B3 (estradiol 17β glucuronide transport), and OAT3 (estrone 3 sulfate transport) activity in a concentrationdependent manner with estimated IC(50) values of 1.66 ± 0.95 μM, 3.34 ± 0.64 μM, and 0.973 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. In the presence of steady state pradigastat concentrations, AUC(τ, ss) of rosuvastatin was unchanged and its Cmax,ss decreased by 14% (5.30 and 4.61 ng/mL when administered alone and coadministered with pradigastat, respectively). Pradigastat AUC(τ, ss) and C(max, ss) were unchanged when coadministered with rosuvastatin at steady state. Both rosuvastatin and pradigastat were well tolerated. Conclusion: These data indicate no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interaction between pradigastat and rosuvastatin.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 03/2015; 53(05). DOI:10.5414/CP202275 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Non-metabolized toxic compounds are common substrates of this transporter, although phase I products could also be eliminated by this way (Bard, 2000; Chan et al., 2004; Takano et al., 2006). The ABCC family has 9 members (ABCC1–9) with ABCC2 being localized at the apical membrane in several tissues, including the intestinal epithelium, while other ABCCs are basolateral or their localization is still poorly known (Borst et al., 1999; Chan et al., 2004; Klaassen and Aleksunes, 2010; Russel, 2010). ABCC2 exports phase II products, conjugated and unconjugated anionic compounds, such as LTC4 and 2,4- dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), and bilirubin glucuronides. "
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    ABSTRACT: We studied Abcc mediated-transport in middle and posterior intestine of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Luminal and serosal transport were evaluated in everted and non-everted intestinal sacs, respectively, incubated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB; 200 μM). CDNB enters the cells and is conjugated with glutathione via glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), a known Abcc substrate. DNP-SG concentration in the bath was recorded every 10 min, in order to calculate the mass-specific transport rate. For evaluating the possible involvement of Abcc proteins in microcystin-LR (MCLR) transport, 1.135 μM MCLR was added to the bath or inside the sacs, in everted or non-everted preparations, respectively. Both luminal and serosal DNP-SG efflux were significantly inhibited by MCLR. A concentration–response curve obtained using strips from middle intestine yielded an IC50 value of 1.33 μM MCLR. The Abcc inhibitor, MK571 produced concentration-dependent inhibition of DNP-SG similar to that produced by MCLR. Since competition of MCLR and CDNB as GST substrates could bias the DNP-SG transport results, we evaluated the effects of MCLR on calcein efflux, which does not depend on GST activity. We applied the non-fluorescent, cell-permeant compound calcein-AM (0.25 μM) to middle intestinal strips and recorded the efflux of its hydrolysis product, the fluorescent Abcc substrate calcein. 2.27 μM MCLR and 3 μM MK571 inhibited calcein efflux (17.39 and 20.2%, respectively). Finally, MCLR interaction with Abcc transporters was evaluated by measuring its toxic intracellular effects. Middle intestinal segments were incubated in saline solution with 1.135 μM MCLR (MC1), 2.27 μM MCLR (MC2), 3 μM MK571 (MK) or 1.135 μM MCLR + 3 μM MK571 (MC1/MK). After 1 h, GSH concentration, protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1, PP2A) and GST activities were measured in each segment. MC1did not produce significant effect while MC1/MK and MC2 significantly inhibited PP1and PP2A in similar proportions (34–49%). MK alone significantly increased PP2A activity (40%) with no effect in any other variable. GST activity and GSH concentration were not affected by any treatment. Concentration–response curves for MCLR (1.135 to 13.62 μM) alone or plus 3 or 6 μM MK571 were obtained using PP1 activity as response variable. The IC50 values were 1.0, 0.52, and 0.37 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that O. mykiss enterocytes are capable of eliminating MCLR by GST-mediated conjugation and luminal excretion through an Abcc-like apical transporter. This mechanism would prevent toxic effects and reduce the toxin uptake into the blood, which is likely mediated by basolateral Abccs.
    Aquatic Toxicology 09/2014; 154:97-106. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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