The atrial fibrillation is linked to an overmortality (x2), except in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. The severity of atrial fibrillation is due to the risk of thromboembolism event, especially stroke. This risk is very high in presence of rhumatismal mitral valve pathology or prosthetic valve. The annual risk of thromboembolism has been evaluated and the CHADS2 score defined from 0 to 6 In function of the CHADS2 score the risk of thromboembolism event is 1.9 to 18.2%/year. Other factors of thromboembolism accident are actually evaluated such as renal insufficiency, proteinuria. The main objective of atrial fibrillation treatment is the prevention of thromboembolism event. The antivitamin K agents proved their efficiency in term of mortality and morbidity justifying to identify the patients at risk of thromboembolism event.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients who have atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased risk of stroke, but their absolute rate of stroke depends on age and comorbid conditions.
To assess the predictive value of classification schemes that estimate stroke risk in patients with AF.
Two existing classification schemes were combined into a new stroke-risk scheme, the CHADS( 2) index, and all 3 classification schemes were validated. The CHADS( 2) was formed by assigning 1 point each for the presence of congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or older, and diabetes mellitus and by assigning 2 points for history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Data from peer review organizations representing 7 states were used to assemble a National Registry of AF (NRAF) consisting of 1733 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 to 95 years who had nonrheumatic AF and were not prescribed warfarin at hospital discharge.
Hospitalization for ischemic stroke, determined by Medicare claims data.
During 2121 patient-years of follow-up, 94 patients were readmitted to the hospital for ischemic stroke (stroke rate, 4.4 per 100 patient-years). As indicated by a c statistic greater than 0.5, the 2 existing classification schemes predicted stroke better than chance: c of 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.71) for the scheme developed by the Atrial Fibrillation Investigators (AFI) and c of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.71-0.76) for the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation (SPAF) III scheme. However, with a c statistic of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.84), the CHADS( 2) index was the most accurate predictor of stroke. The stroke rate per 100 patient-years without antithrombotic therapy increased by a factor of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.7) for each 1-point increase in the CHADS( 2) score: 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) for a score of 0; 2.8 (95% CI, 2.0-3.8) for 1; 4.0 (95% CI, 3.1-5.1) for 2; 5.9 (95% CI, 4.6-7.3) for 3; 8.5 (95% CI, 6.3-11.1) for 4; 12.5 (95% CI, 8.2-17.5) for 5; and 18.2 (95% CI, 10.5-27.4) for 6.
The 2 existing classification schemes and especially a new stroke risk index, CHADS( 2), can quantify risk of stroke for patients who have AF and may aid in selection of antithrombotic therapy.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2001; 285(22):2864-70. DOI:10.1016/S1062-1458(01)00458-5 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described.
To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050.
Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997.
Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050.
A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older.
Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2001; 285(18):2370-5. · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have a poorer neurological outcome than stroke patients without AF. Whether stroke patients with AF also have a higher rate of medical complications is unknown. The aim of the study was to compare the in-hospital course of acute stroke patients with and without AF.
The Austrian Stroke registry was a prospective multi-centre study involving 57 medical departments documenting the hospital course of consecutive stroke patients from June 1999 to October 2000. AF was diagnosed in 304 (31%) of 992 patients. Patients with AF were older (79 versus 75 years, p < 0.0004) than no-AF patients. There were more cases of pneumonia (23% versus 9%, p < 0.0004), pulmonary oedema (12% versus 6%, p < 0.0004) and symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (8% versus 2%, p < 0.0004) in AF compared to no-AF. In-hospital mortality was higher in AF (25% versus 14%, p < 0.0004), and neurological outcome was poorer (65 versus 90 Barthel index, p < 0.0004). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, AF was no predictor for mortality, but a Barthel index of zero (odds ratio 5.30, 95% CI 3.10-9.08, p < 0.0001), a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale > 21 or comatose (odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI 2.26-4.32, p < 0.0001), age > 75 years (odds ratio 3.15, 95% CI 1.85-5.37, p < 0.0001), heart rate > 100 min(-1) (odds ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.26-3.66, p = 0.0049), obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio 2.58, 95% CI 1.03-6.48, p = 0.0442) and creatinine > 125 micromol/l (odds ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.00-3.37, p = 0.0479).
Stroke in AF is associated with a poor prognosis, an increased rate of medical and neurological complications and a higher in-hospital mortality than in no-AF.
European Heart Journal 10/2004; 25(19):1734-40. DOI:10.1016/j.ehj.2004.06.030 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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