Recurrent Community-acquired Pneumonia in Patients Starting Acid-suppressing Drugs
ABSTRACT Several studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2s) increase risk of community-acquired pneumonia. To test this hypothesis, we examined a prospective population-based cohort predisposed to pneumonia: elderly patients (> or =65 years) who had survived hospitalization for pneumonia.
This study featured a nested case-control design where cases were patients hospitalized for recurrent pneumonia (> or =30 days after initial episode) and controls were age, sex, and incidence-density sampling matched but never had recurrent pneumonia. PPI/H2 exposure was classified as never, past, or current use before recurrent pneumonia. The association between PPI/H2s and pneumonia was assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression.
During 5.4 years of follow-up, 248 recurrent pneumonia cases were matched with 2476 controls. Overall, 71 of 608 (12%) current PPI/H2 users had recurrent pneumonia, compared with 130 of 1487 (8%) nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.1). Stratifying the 608 current users according to timing of PPI/H2 initiation revealed incident current-users (initiated PPI/H2 after initial pneumonia hospitalization, n=303) bore the entire increased risk of recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (15% vs 8% among nonusers, aOR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). The 305 prevalent current-users (PPI/H2 exposure before and after initial community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization) were equally likely to develop recurrent pneumonia as nonusers (aOR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.63-1.57).
Acid-suppressing drug use substantially increased the likelihood of recurrent pneumonia in high-risk elderly patients. The association was confined to patients initiating PPI/H2s after hospital discharge. Our findings should be considered when deciding to prescribe these drugs in patients with a recent history of pneumonia.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Cheryl Sadowski, Apr 28, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Kazushi Sakurai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNFα and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 01/2015; 56(1):20-27. DOI:10.3164/jcbn.14-67 · 2.29 Impact Factor
- Respiration 02/2015; DOI:10.1159/000375318 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Acid suppressive medications are used to prevent stress ulcers in critically ill patients. Few studies have been done to evaluate the effect of ranitidine and pantoprazole on stress ulcers. We aimed to compare the effects of ranitidine and pantoprazole on Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). Materials and Methods In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 120 traumatic patients with trauma admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Besat Hospital in Hamadan Province located in northwest Iran. The patients were divided into two equal groups receiving either intermittent intravenous ranitidine or pantoprazole to prevent stress ulcers. The incidence of VAP, duration of tracheal intubation, length of ICU stay, duration of hospital stay, and the outcome of treatment including mortality or hospital discharge were compared in both groups. Results The incidence of VAP was 10% and 30% in patients receiving ranitidine and pantoprazole, respectively (P=0.006). There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the duration of tracheal intubation. However, the patients treated with pantoprazole stayed at the hospital two days longer than the other patients (P=0.027). Although patients with VAP stayed at the hospital for 12 more days, the two groups had almost equal mortality rates (P=0.572). Conclusion ICU patients using pump inhibitors have a three-fold increased risk of developing VAP in comparison to H2-blocker receivers. Thus, prevention of stress ulcers should be limited to its own specific indications.Tanaffos 02/2013; 12(2):16-21.