Bioavailability in healthy adults of efavirenz capsule contents mixed with a small amount of food
ABSTRACT The effect of mixing the contents of efavirenz capsules (sprinkles) with a small amount of food on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in healthy adults was evaluated.
In a randomized, three-period, crossover study, 24 healthy adult subjects were divided equally into two groups. Group I received treatments A, B, and C, and those in group II received treatments A, D, and E. Treatment A was three efavirenz 200-mg intact capsules under fasting conditions. Treatments B, C, D, and E were three efavirenz 200-mg capsule contents mixed with two teaspoons of applesauce, grape jelly, yogurt, or infant formula, respectively. A single dose was given on days 1, 21, and 41. The steady-state mean maximum observed concentration, time of maximum observed concentration, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) half-life, taste, and safety were assessed.
The AUC after administration of a single 600-mg dose of efavirenz sprinkles mixed with two teaspoons of any of the food vehicles to healthy adults was bioequivalent to a 600-mg efavirenz dose given as intact capsules under fasting conditions. Subjects rated efavirenz mixed with grape jelly as the most palatable. Adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were similar for all treatments.
The AUC of efavirenz 600 mg administered as capsule sprinkles with two teaspoons of applesauce, grape jelly, yogurt, or infant formula was bioequivalent to a single dose of efavirenz 600 mg given as intact capsules under fasting conditions in healthy adults.
SourceAvailable from: Imke H Bartelink[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. 80% of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m(2) . Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV -33%, EFV -15%, ritonavir -17%) compared to well-nourished controls [p < 0.001], attributable to decreased bioavailability. Pregnancy increased LPV/r clearance 68% [p < 0.001], whereas EFV clearance remained unchanged. Hair concentrations correlated with plasma-exposure [p < 0.001], explaining 29% PK-variability. In conclusion, pregnancy and food insecurity were associated with lower ART exposures in this cohort of predominantly underweight women, compared to well-nourished women. Much variability in plasma-exposure was quantified using hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2014; 54(2). DOI:10.1002/jcph.167 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: A multitude of antiretroviral drug formulations are now available for HIV-infected adults and children. These formulations include individual and co-formulated drugs, many of which are also supplied in generic versions. Many antiretroviral drugs have a low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Drug formulation can significantly affect bioavailability, and given the increasing number of new formulations and drug combinations, it is important to be aware that formulation can influence the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of studies assessing the pharmacokinetics of different antiretroviral drug formulations in adults and children, including fixed-dose combinations. For some antiretroviral drugs, differences in pharmacokinetics have been described, with largest differences in exposure when a liquid formulation is compared to a tablet or capsule formulation. Biopharmaceutical properties of antiretroviral drugs relevant to bioavailability are discussed. Expert opinion: Antiretroviral drug formulations and their excipients can significantly impact drug exposure. However, this is not yet fully recognized. It is important to realize that children use different formulations than adults. Effort should be made to ensure that adequate drug exposures are achieved to treat HIV-infected children. In addition, manipulation of drug formulations may lead to differences in pharmacokinetics.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 05/2014; DOI:10.1517/17425255.2014.925879 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children. Sparse dried blood spot samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from 3 resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models. Concentrations in 330 dried blood spot from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7-7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5-12 years. Among Ugandan children, 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P = 0.045) and 18% (P = 0.008), respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (P < 0.001) with a trend toward greater bioavailability when malnourished. Children receiving LPV, EFV or NVP had comparable risk of virologic failure. Among children on NVP, low height and weight for age Z scores were associated with reduced risk of virologic failure (P = 0.034, P = 0.068, respectively). Ugandan children demonstrated lower EFV and LPV and higher NVP exposure compared to children in RRC, perhaps reflecting the consequence of malnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessments, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2015; 34(3):e63-70. DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000603 · 3.14 Impact Factor