Bioavailability in healthy adults of efavirenz capsule contents mixed with a small amount of food.
ABSTRACT The effect of mixing the contents of efavirenz capsules (sprinkles) with a small amount of food on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in healthy adults was evaluated.
In a randomized, three-period, crossover study, 24 healthy adult subjects were divided equally into two groups. Group I received treatments A, B, and C, and those in group II received treatments A, D, and E. Treatment A was three efavirenz 200-mg intact capsules under fasting conditions. Treatments B, C, D, and E were three efavirenz 200-mg capsule contents mixed with two teaspoons of applesauce, grape jelly, yogurt, or infant formula, respectively. A single dose was given on days 1, 21, and 41. The steady-state mean maximum observed concentration, time of maximum observed concentration, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) half-life, taste, and safety were assessed.
The AUC after administration of a single 600-mg dose of efavirenz sprinkles mixed with two teaspoons of any of the food vehicles to healthy adults was bioequivalent to a 600-mg efavirenz dose given as intact capsules under fasting conditions. Subjects rated efavirenz mixed with grape jelly as the most palatable. Adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were similar for all treatments.
The AUC of efavirenz 600 mg administered as capsule sprinkles with two teaspoons of applesauce, grape jelly, yogurt, or infant formula was bioequivalent to a single dose of efavirenz 600 mg given as intact capsules under fasting conditions in healthy adults.
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. 80% of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m(2) . Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV -33%, EFV -15%, ritonavir -17%) compared to well-nourished controls [p < 0.001], attributable to decreased bioavailability. Pregnancy increased LPV/r clearance 68% [p < 0.001], whereas EFV clearance remained unchanged. Hair concentrations correlated with plasma-exposure [p < 0.001], explaining 29% PK-variability. In conclusion, pregnancy and food insecurity were associated with lower ART exposures in this cohort of predominantly underweight women, compared to well-nourished women. Much variability in plasma-exposure was quantified using hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2013; · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the absorption of four antiretroviral agents-raltegravir, etravirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir-is compromised when administered by gastrostomy tube. Pharmacokinetic analysis. University medical center. A 52-year-old African-American man coinfected with advanced multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis B, who was receiving treatment with raltegravir, etravirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, and developed ulcerative esophagitis with perforation, requiring a gastrostomy tube. Due to the patient's esophageal perforations, all nutrition and drug therapy had to be provided by gastrostomy tube. As his antiretroviral regimen of raltegravir, etravirine, and emtricitabine-tenofovir was not available in liquid or powder formulations, the oral tablets were crushed or dispersed and mixed with water, then administered by gastrostomy tube. To ensure that the absorption of the drugs was sufficient for antiretroviral response, plasma samples were collected at 2 hours and 12 hours after dosing, and drug concentrations were quantitated by using validated assays. The 2- and 12-hour postdose plasma concentrations were 1220 and 446 ng/ml for raltegravir, 212 and 274 ng/ml for etravirine, 1148 and 164 ng/ml for emtricitabine, and 320 and 94 ng/ml for tenofovir, respectively. The patient's plasma concentrations were then compared with those in published pharmacokinetic studies of oral regimens administered to HIV-infected persons and healthy volunteers. Overall, the plasma concentrations of the antiretrovirals administered by gastrostomy tube were similar to published values. No drug toxicities were observed in this patient. These pharmacokinetic data suggest that absorption of raltegravir, etravirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir was not compromised when the drugs were administered by gastrostomy tube. These findings provide a basis for further investigation of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerance, and antiretroviral response to raltegravir, etravirine, and emtricitabine-tenofovir when the oral route of administration is not possible.Pharmacotherapy 02/2012; 32(2):142-7. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: A multitude of antiretroviral drug formulations are now available for HIV-infected adults and children. These formulations include individual and co-formulated drugs, many of which are also supplied in generic versions. Many antiretroviral drugs have a low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Drug formulation can significantly affect bioavailability, and given the increasing number of new formulations and drug combinations, it is important to be aware that formulation can influence the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of studies assessing the pharmacokinetics of different antiretroviral drug formulations in adults and children, including fixed-dose combinations. For some antiretroviral drugs, differences in pharmacokinetics have been described, with largest differences in exposure when a liquid formulation is compared to a tablet or capsule formulation. Biopharmaceutical properties of antiretroviral drugs relevant to bioavailability are discussed. Expert opinion: Antiretroviral drug formulations and their excipients can significantly impact drug exposure. However, this is not yet fully recognized. It is important to realize that children use different formulations than adults. Effort should be made to ensure that adequate drug exposures are achieved to treat HIV-infected children. In addition, manipulation of drug formulations may lead to differences in pharmacokinetics.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 05/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor