Impact of exercise on patients with depression and anxiety.
ABSTRACT Persons with common mental disorders are at risk of lowered physical activity.
To investigate if patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders can achieve a level of physical activity meeting public health recommendations, increase their physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) through participation in a physical exercise programme.
In a non-blinded controlled study, 48 patients referred by private psychiatric clinics and private general practices were either treated in an intervention (n=27) or a control group (n=21). The intervention group took part in 20 weeks of group exercise consisting of aerobic training and non-aerobic weight-lifting. All participants were interviewed and tested at baseline, week 20 and at week 32.
The intervention group increased in physical activity (120 min/week) and VO(2)max (0.48 ml O(2)/min). The VO(2)max increase was maintained after a 12-week follow-up period. Findings should be conservatively interpreted because of high attrition rate.
Patients with anxiety and/or depressive disorders who participated in a structured, supervised exercise programme achieved in accordance with public health recommendations a higher level of physical activity and VO(2)max.
The clinical implications of the study may be a suggestion of offering physical exercise to milder and moderate severe cases of depression and anxiety.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.comAsian Nursing Research 06/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.anr.2015.01.003 · 0.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in individuals preselected because of their high anxiety. The objective of this study is to review and critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were randomized to an exercise or nonexercise control condition. Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for select groups, similar to established treatments and greater than placebo. However, most studies had significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence and fitness levels. Exercise may be a useful treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous, methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive conclusions about its effectiveness.Annals of Behavioral Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9685-9 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine effects of physical activity on depressive symptoms (primary objective), symptoms of schizophrenia, anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (secondary objectives) in people with mental illness and explore between-study heterogeneity. MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from earliest record to 2013. Randomized controlled trials of adults with a DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, or clinician-confirmed diagnosis of a mental illness other than dysthymia or eating disorders were selected. Interventions included exercise programs, exercise counseling, lifestyle interventions, tai chi, or physical yoga. Study methodological quality and intervention compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were also assessed. Two investigators extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible trials were identified. The primary meta-analysis found a large effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (n = 20; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.80). The effect size in trial interventions that met ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise did not differ significantly from those that did not meet these guidelines. The effect for trials with higher methodological quality was smaller than that observed for trials with lower methodological quality (SMD = 0.39 vs 1.35); however, the difference was not statistically significant. A large effect was found for schizophrenia symptoms (SMD = 1.0), a small effect was found for anthropometry (SMD = 0.24), and moderate effects were found for aerobic capacity (SMD = 0.63) and quality of life (SMD = 0.64). Physical activity reduced depressive symptoms in people with mental illness. Larger effects were seen in studies of poorer methodological quality. Physical activity reduced symptoms of schizophrenia and improved anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life among people with mental illness. PROSPERO registration #CRD42012002012.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 09/2014; 75(9):964-974. DOI:10.4088/JCP.13r08765 · 5.14 Impact Factor