Dietary Milk Fat Globule Membrane Reduces the Incidence of Aberrant Crypt Foci in Fischer-344 Rats

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Sciences, Utah State University, 750 N 1200 E, Logan, Utah 84322-8700, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 02/2010; 58(4):2157-63. DOI: 10.1021/jf903617q
Source: PubMed


Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

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    • "Because components derived from the MFGM have shown properties beneficial to health, interest has increased in recent years in the isolation of the MFGM as a functional ingredient. For example, isolates from cream and buttermilk have antiproliferative activity against colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo (Snow et al., 2010; Zanabria et al., 2013), and immunomodulatory properties (Zanabria et al., 2014b). Processing of milk, cream, or buttermilk may affect the structure and composition of the MFGM (Kim and Jimenez Flores, 1995; Michalski et al., 2002; Morin et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705 μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3 min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Dairy Science 02/2015; 98(5):2867-2874. DOI:10.3168/jds.2014-8839 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "The MFGM fractions have beneficial properties such as inhibition of growth of cancer cells (Snow et al., 2010), inhibition of pathogen adhesion (Guri et al., 2012), or antimicrobial properties (Spitsberg, 2005; Sanchez- Juanes et al., 2009). For example, fat globules from both bovine and goat milk inhibit the adhesion of Salmonella enteritidis to HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells in a cultured cell experiment (Guri et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Milk is an aqueous solution of lactose, minerals, and small-molecularweight components, in which fat globules and proteins are dispersed. The structure of the colloidal particles present in milk, both at the molecular and supramolecular level, is well conserved between species, and serves multiple biological functionalities. Indeed, milk is an excellent example of a food matrix having both nutritional and physiological roles. The milk components can be either assembled into novel structures, or they can be disrupted during digestion, resulting in a variety of fragments with distinct biological functionalities (Ward and German, 2004). p0015 The proteins present in the serum phase ofmilk (whey proteins) exist as monomers or oligomers, and some of their functions are yet to be elucidated. They are considered of high nutritional quality because of their amino acid composition. Casein proteins constitute about 80%of the total protein in milk, and are critical to the growth and development of the neonate (Holt, 2004). Caseins are present as an assembly of colloidal particles with diameters ranging from80 to 500 nm, and their structure represents a great example of nature’s solution to nutrient delivery. The casein micelles are destabilized during digestion by the gastric acidic environment and partial hydrolysis of the polyelectrolyte layer of k-casein, present on the surface, creating a structure that plays a role in modulating stomach emptying of the proteins and fat globules. In addition to the protein, triglycerides in milk are also present as colloidal supramolecular structures, covered by a trilayer membrane composed mainly of phospholipids and proteins. It is becoming increasingly evident (Argov et al., 2008; Evers et al., 2008) that the structural organization of the milk fat globule plays a major role in biological functions related to gut health and development. p0020 In recent years there has been an increasing interest in understanding the role of these structures beyond supplying the nutritional components necessary to the growth of the neonate (Macierzanka et al., 2011; Michalski et al., 2013; Barbe et al., 2013). In addition, dairy components have been employed to create functional structures in foods that are not only nutritionally dense, but also deliver beneficial molecules not originally present in milk. In this chapter we will give an overview of our current understanding of milk as a platform for delivery of beneficial components; however, this is not intended by any means to be an exhaustive review, as new information continues to become available on the central place that milk components can play in the development of functional foods. In this chapter we will focus attention on the main milk colloids, proteins, and milk fat globules, which have shown the potential to act as a platform for the delivery of bioactive molecules.
    Food Structures, Digestion and Health, Academic Press, Edited by Mike Boland, Mat Golding, Harjinder Singh, 06/2014: chapter XVII: pages 465-481; Academic Press., ISBN: 978-0-12-404610-8
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    • "Upon consideration of these protein solubility and AMF processing factors and in view of an apparent absence of published AMF protein data, our objective was to develop a method for reliably estimating the protein concentration in AMF and to apply the method to commercial AMF. The Kjeldahl nitrogen methodology (DePeters and Ferguson 1992) was not regarded as a suitable option due to sensitivity considerations and to the established presence of phospholipids in AMF (Niranjan and Krishnakantha 2001; Rombaut et al. 2006; Fedotova and Lencki 2008; Gallier et al. 2010; Snow et al. 2010), i.e., their contribution of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) to a Kjeldahl N total may be expected to impart a significant positive bias. Accordingly, on the basis of (a) its capacity for excluding the NPN bias, (b) its established use for accurately determining protein concentration (Schegg et al. 1997), (c) its application to the determination of protein in oils (Hidalgo et al. 2001; Martin-Hernandez et al. 2008), (d) its ability via the use of derivatization reagents (e.g., FMOC) for quantifying low analyte concentrations (Jambor and Molnar- Perl 2009), and (e) its compatibility with widely available liquid chromatography instrumentation, amino acid analysis was selected as the methodology of choice. "
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    ABSTRACT: A method for the estimation of protein in anhydrous milk fat is described. The protein concentration is estimated by quantifying the arginine and aspartic acid (ASX) released upon acid hydrolysis of the anhydrous milk fat. Arginine and aspartic acid are derivatized with the fluorescent tag 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC), the derivatives are quantified by reversed phase HPLC, and the protein concentration in the anhydrous milk fat is estimated as 8.77 × (Arg + ASX). Method suitability was defined by experimental assessments of FMOC-arginine and FMOC-aspartic acid linearity (R 2 averages > 0.999), protein estimate precision [day-to-day RSD values (n = 8 days) ranged from 7.3 to 14 % for protein concentrations of 9.42 to 40.0 mg/kg of anhydrous milk fat], protein estimate accuracy [spike recovery average = 95.6 % (9.3 %), n = 8, spiking level = 20 mg/kg and agreement of the experimental protein estimate for butter, 0.611 (0.044) g/100 g, n = 3 lots, with a published value 0.6/100 g], and analyte selectivity (baseline resolution of FMOC-arginine and FMOC-aspartic acid from the FMOC derivatives of other common amino acids). The method provides for a reliable estimation of the protein content of anhydrous milk fat, when present at concentrations >2 mg/kg.
    Food Analytical Methods 04/2013; 6(2). DOI:10.1007/s12161-012-9451-1 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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