Using data from the four Cluster spacecraft we study the separatrix regions of magnetic reconnection sites at the dayside magnetopause under conditions when reconnection is occurring in the magnetopause current layer which separates magnetosheath plasma from the hot magnetospheric plasma sheet. We define the separatrix region as the region between the separatrix – the first field line opened by reconnection – and the reconnection jet (outflow region). We analyze eight separatrix region crossings on the magnetospheric side of the magnetopause and present detailed data for two of the events. We show that characteristic widths of the separatrix regions are of the order of ten ion inertial lengths at the magnetopause. Narrow separatrix regions with widths comparable to a few ion inertial lengths are rare. We show that inside the separatrix region there is a density cavity which sometimes has complex internal structure with multiple density dips. Strong electric fields exist inside the separatrix regions and the electric potential drop across the regions can be up to several kV. On the magnetosheath side of the region there is a density gradient with strong field aligned currents. The observed strong electric fields and currents inside the separatrix region can be important for a local energization of ions and electrons, particularly of ionospheric origin, as well as for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.
"The strong normal electric field can be balanced by −v × B drift of ions. In many events the ions are hot and have gyroradii larger than the narrow separatrix region [Lindstedt et al., 2009]. In our case, the cold ions have small enough gyroradii to drift inside the limited separatrix region and can hence be important for the normal electric field. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on detailed observations by the four Cluster spacecraft of magnetic reconnection and a Flux Transfer Event (FTE) at the magnetopause. We detect cold (eV) plasma at the magnetopause with two independent methods. We show that the cold ions can be essential for the electric field normal to the current sheet in the separatrix region at the edge of the FTE and for the associated acceleration of ions from the magnetosphere into the reconnection jet. The cold ions have small enough gyroradii to drift inside the limited separatrix region and the normal electric field can be balanced by this drift, E ≈ −v × B. The separatrix region also includes cold accelerated electrons, as part of the reconnection current circuit.
Geophysical Research Letters 11/2010; 37(22-22):L22108. DOI:10.1029/2010GL044611 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report Cluster observations of oxygen energization by several keV at the boundary between the high latitude cusp and lobe. A localized electric field at the cusp/lobe boundary is responsible for a significant part of the observed energization. Such electric fields can be related to the separatrix region of reconnection at the magnetopause. Ions are accelerated as they move non-adiabatically in the spatially inhomogeneous electric field. Additional heating may be provided by low frequency waves at the oxygen gyrofrequency.
Geophysical Research Letters 05/2010; 37(9-9):L09103. DOI:10.1029/2010GL043117 · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using Cluster data, we investigate the electric structure of a
dipolarization front (DF) - the ion inertial length
(c/ωpi) scale boundary in the Earth's magnetotail
formed at the front edge of an earthward propagating flow with
reconnected magnetic flux. We estimate the current density and the
electron pressure gradient throughout the DF by both single-spacecraft
and multi-spacecraft methods. Comparison of the results from the two
methods shows that the single-spacecraft analysis, which is capable of
resolving the detailed structure of the boundary, can be applied for the
DF we study. Based on this, we use the current density and the electron
pressure gradient from the single-spacecraft method to investigate which
terms in the generalized Ohm's law balance the electric field throughout
the DF. We find that there is an electric field at ion inertia scale
directed normal to the DF; it has a duskward component at the dusk flank
of DF but a dawnward component at the dawn flank of DF. This electric
field is balanced by the Hall (j × B/ne) and electron pressure
gradient (∇ Pe/ne) terms at the DF, with the Hall
term being dominant. Outside the narrow DF region, however, the electric
field is balanced by the convection (Vi × B) term,
meaning the frozen-in condition for ions is broken only at the DF
itself. In the reference frame moving with the DF the tangential
electric field is almost zero, indicating there is no flow of plasma
across the DF and that the DF is a tangential discontinuity. The normal
electric field at the DF constitutes a potential drop of ˜1 keV,
which may reflect and accelerate the surrounding ions.
Geophysical Research Letters 03/2012; 39(6):6105-. DOI:10.1029/2012GL051274 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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