Liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal liver enzymes: influence of HIV infection
ABSTRACT Liver fibrosis progress slowly in patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT) compared to subjects with elevated aminotransferases. Differences in liver fibrosis according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in this population have not been examined. All patients with serum hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA and PNALT who underwent liver fibrosis assessment using elastometry since 2004 at three different European hospitals were evaluated. Patients previously treated with interferon were excluded. PNALT was defined as ALT below the upper limit of normality in at least three consecutive determinations within the last 12 months. Fibrosis stage was defined as mild (Metavir F0–F1) if stiffness ≤7.1 kPa; moderate (F2) if 7.2–9.4 kPa; severe (F3) if 9.5–14 kPa, and cirrhosis (F4) if >14 kPa. A total of 449 HIV-negative and 133 HIV-positive patients were evaluated. HIV-negative patients were older (mean age 51.8 vs 43.5 years) and more frequently females (63% vs 37%) than the HIV counterparts. Mean serum HCV-RNA was similar in both the groups (5.9 vs 5.8 log IU/mL). Overall, 78.8% of the HIV patients were on HAART and their mean CD4 count was 525 (±278) cells/μL. In HIV-negatives, liver fibrosis was mild in 84.6%; moderate in 8.7%, severe in 3.3% and cirrhosis was found in 3.3%. In HIV patients, these figures were 70.7%, 18.8%, 6%, and 4.5%, respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age (odds ratio or OR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.02–1.07; P < 0.001) and being HIV+ (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.21–5.85; P < 0.01) were associated with severe liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3–F4). Thus, severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are seen in 6.6% of the HCV-monoinfected and in 10.5% of HCV-HIV co-infected patients with PNALT. Some degree of liver fibrosis that justifies treatment is seen in 15% of the HCV-monoinfected but doubles to nearly 30% in HIV-HCV co-infected patients with PNALT.
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ABSTRACT: We report the case of 47-year-old man with HIV and hepatitis C virus -associated cirrhosis who, following discontinuation of his antiretroviral therapy (ART), rapidly developed hepatic decompensation. On restarting his antiretroviral therapy there was a noticeable improvement in his liver function, which was attributed to regaining good HIV virus control. Further data on the effects of restarting antiretroviral therapy after antiretroviral therapy-cessation associated hepatic decompensation are needed.International Journal of STD & AIDS 01/2014; 25(10). DOI:10.1177/0956462414521401 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background & AimsTo determine the characteristics of hepatitis C (HCV)-infected patients in 2010 and compare this survey with those reported in 1995 and 2001. Patients and methodsObservational multicentre study conducted in 2010 in French internal medicine, infectious diseases and hepatology departments. ResultsA total of 1621 HCV infected patients (mean age 50.1 ± 10.7 years; sex ratio M/F 1.8; genotype 1: 55.7%) were included. Of these, 910 (56.1%) were HIV–HCV co-infected, 463 (40.4%) were asymptomatic and 184 (16.1%) had cirrhosis at inclusion in this study. Positive viraemia was found in 1,025 patients (65.5%) at inclusion in this study. A complete pretreatment evaluation including investigation for HCV RNA, genotype determination and liver fibrosis was performed in 96.5, 80.5 and 68.7% of the 1,621 patients respectively. Previous and ongoing HCV treatments were noted in 49.6% and 20.1% of patients respectively. A sustained virological response (SVR) was observed in 271/801 (38.3%) patients, i.e. 44.1% and 30.7% in co-infected and mono-infected patients respectively. Cirrhosis was more frequent in the 2010 than in the 2001 and 1995 surveys (16.1% vs. 10.4% and 7.4% respectively; P < 0.0001). A complete pretreatment evaluation was performed in 57.9% and 50.9% of patients in 2010 and 2001 (P < 0.0001). Liver fibrosis evaluation was more frequent in 2010 than in the 2001 and 1995 surveys (68.7% vs. 62.7% and 28.7%, respectively, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The care of HCV-infected patients has changed significantly in ‘real life’ through an improvement of pretreatment evaluation before the antiviral introduction and the increased use of antivirals. New HCV therapy combinations including protease inhibitors are warranted to increase the SVR rate.Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 12/2013; 34(9). DOI:10.1111/liv.12388 · 4.41 Impact Factor
Article: Natural history of hepatitis C[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There has long been evidence that hepatitis C can lead to persistent infection in a high proportion of infected individuals, and can progress to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The transition from acute to chronic hepatitis C is usually sub-clinical. Accurate studies of the time course for clearance of acute hepatitis C are difficult to carry out because of the silent onset of the acute disease. The likelihood of spontaneous HCV resolution is associated with several genetic factors, including IL28B inheritance and the DQB1∗0301 allele of the major histocompatibility complex class II. Most data suggest that resolution in the acute phase without progression to chronic disease is not accompanied by significant disease, but minor histological lesions have been observed in anti-HCV positive, HCV RNA negative individuals. The risk of reinfection remains a possibility after clearance of acute hepatitis C. High rates of sexually-transmitted infection are being reported in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Chronic infection with HCV is the leading cause of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver related death in the Western world. The natural history of the chronic disease remains incompletely defined. It is generally a slowly progressive disease characterized by persistent hepatic inflammation, leading to the development of cirrhosis in approximately 10–20% of patients over 20–30 years of HCV infection. However, the published data indicate varying progression rates to cirrhosis. Overall, once cirrhosis has developed there is a 1–5% annual risk of HCC and a 3–6% annual risk of hepatic decompensation. Following an episode of decompensation the risk of death in the following year is between 15% and 20%. The high number of chronically infected individuals, the burden of disease, and the absence of a vaccine indicates that treatment will form part of the disease control but the impact, effectiveness and outcomes of treatment in various groups remain uncertain. Several studies and meta-analysis have concluded that eradication of HCV with antiviral therapy reduces the risk of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C, independent of fibrosis stage, but the risk is not eliminated.Journal of Hepatology 11/2014; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.07.012 · 10.40 Impact Factor