Proteins That Underlie Neoplastic Progression of Ulcerative Colitis.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS (Impact Factor: 1.81). 09/2009; 3(11):1326. DOI: 10.1002/prca.200900061
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Because UC tumorigenesis is associated with genomic field defects that can extend throughout the entire colon, including the non-dysplastic mucosa; we hypothesized that the same field defect will include abnormally expressed proteins. Here we applied proteomics to study the protein expression of UC neoplastic progression. The protein profiles of colonic epithelium were compared from 1) UC patients without dysplasia (non-progressors); 2) none-dysplastic colonic tissue from UC patient with high-grade dysplasia or cancer (progressors); 3) high-grade dysplastic tissue from UC progressors and 4) normal colon. We identified protein differential expression associated with UC neoplastic progression. Proteins relating to mitochondria, oxidative activity, calcium-binding proteins were some of interesting classes of these proteins. Network analysis discovered that Sp1 and c-myc proteins may play roles in UC early and late stages of neoplastic progression, respectively. Two over-expressed proteins in the non-dysplastic tissue of UC progressors, CPS1 and S100P, were further confirmed by IHC analysis. Our study provides insight into the molecular events associated with UC neoplastic progression, which could be exploited for the development of protein biomarkers in fields of non-dysplastic mucosa that identify a patient's risk for UC dysplasia.

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    ABSTRACT: To characterize tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) expression in the progression of ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated colorectal cancer. Chronic UC is an inflammatory bowel disease that predisposes to colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate TRAP1 expression on tissue microarrays containing colonic tissues from 42 UC progressors (patients with cancer or dysplasia) and 38 non-progressors (dysplasia/cancer free patients). Statistical analyses of the TRAP1 immunohistochemistry staining were performed using GraphPad Prism. Differences in the TRAP1 level between non-progressors and progressors were tested for statistical significance using the Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic curve method was used to quantify marker performance in distinguishing diseased cases from controls. TRAP1 was up-regulated in the colon tissues from UC progressors, but not in the colon tissues from UC non-progressors. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAP1 preceded the neoplastic changes: it was present in both the dysplastic and non-dysplastic tissues of UC progressors. When TRAP1 staining in rectal tissue was used as a diagnostic marker, it could distinguish progressors from non-progressors with 59% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Our study further showed that the increase of TRAP1 expression positively correlated with the degree of inflammation in the colorectal cancer tissues, which could be related to the increased oxidation present in the colonic mucosa from UC progressors. We then investigated the cellular proteome changes underlying oxidative stress, and found that oxidative stress could induce up-regulation of TRAP1 along with several other negative modulators of apoptosis. These results suggest that oxidative stress in long standing UC could lead to the increase of cytoprotective protein TRAP1, which in turn could promote cancer progression by preventing or protecting the oxidative damaged epithelial cells from undergoing apoptosis. TRAP1 could be a potential diagnostic marker for UC associated colorectal cancer.
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    ABSTRACT: The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) drives tumourigenesis in ulcerative colitis (UC). Recently, we showed that H2 O2 activates DNA damage checkpoints in human colonic epithelial cells (HCEC) through c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNK) that induces p21(WAF1) . Moreover, caspases circumvented the G1/S and intra-S checkpoints, and cells accumulated in G2/M. The latter observation raised the question of whether repeated H2 O2 exposures alter JNK activation, thereby promoting a direct passage of cells from G2/M arrest to driven cell cycle progression. Here, we report that increased proliferation of repeatedly H2 O2 -exposed HCEC cells (C-cell cultures) was associated with (i) increased phospho-p46 JNK, (ii) decreased total JNK and phospho-p54 JNK and (iii) p21(WAF1) down-regulation. Altered JNK activation and p21(WAF1) down-regulation were accompanied by defects in maintaining G2/M and mitotic spindle checkpoints through adaptation, as well as by apoptosis resistance following H2 O2 exposure. This may cause increased proliferation of C-cell cultures, a defining initiating feature in the inflammation-carcinoma pathway in UC. We further suggest that dysregulated JNK activation is attributed to a non-apoptotic function of caspases, causing checkpoint adaptation in C-cell cultures. Additionally, loss of cell-contact inhibition and the overcoming of senescence, hallmarks of cancer, contributed to increased proliferation. Furthermore, there was evidence that p54 JNK inactivation is responsible for loss of cell-contact inhibition. We present a cellular model of UC and suggest a sinusoidal pattern of proliferation, which is triggered by H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species generation, involving an interplay between JNK activation/inactivation, p21(WAF1) , c-Fos, c-Jun/phospho-c-Jun, ATF2/phospho-ATF2, β-catenin/TCF4-signalling, c-Myc, CDK6 and Cyclin D2, leading to driven cell cycle progression.
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