Reduced NREM sleep instability in benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.
ABSTRACT To analyze sleep architecture and NREM sleep instability by means of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in children with benign epilepsy with rolandic spikes (BERS).
Ten children with BERS, drug free at the time of the study and 10 age-matched normal controls were included in this study. Sleep was visually scored for sleep architecture and CAP using standard criteria.
Sleep architecture in BERS showed only few significant differences vs. controls with a reduction of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and REM sleep percentage. CAP analysis revealed several significant differences: reduced total CAP rate, mainly in sleep stage 2, and reduced EEG slow oscillations and arousals during stages N1 and N2.
Sleep architecture is not importantly affected in BERS but CAP analysis reveals a decrease of NREM instability, mainly in sleep stage 2. Since there is a spindle-related spike activation in BERS, we speculate that the decrease of CAP and of EEG slow oscillations and arousals might be linked with the inhibitory action of spindling activity and spikes on arousals.
CAP analysis discloses sleep structure abnormalities in children with BERS not shown by the classical sleep scoring. Spike activity and CAP A1 subtypes seem to be mutually exclusive probably because centro-temporal spikes disturb the physiological synchronization mechanisms needed for the generation of slow-wave components of CAP.
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ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although disturbed sleep has been frequently reported in patients with seizures, little is known about insomnia and epilepsy. The aims of this study were (1) to analyze the prevalence and degree of insomnia in patients with epilepsy, (2) to examine the clinical features and correlates of insomnia in these patients, and (3) to evaluate the impact of poor sleep on their quality of life. METHODS: One hundred-fifty-two patients with epilepsy (mean age 46 years) completed the following questionnaires: Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31. Patients with other known sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, were excluded from the study. Regression analysis was conducted for adjusting for age, years since epilepsy onset, number of antiepileptic drugs, comorbidities, and depression scores. RESULTS: More than half of the participants (55%) suffered from insomnia and more than 70% were "poor sleepers." Insomnia and poor sleep quality were significantly correlated with the number of antiepileptic medications and scores of depressive symptoms. After controlling for covariates, insomnia and poor sleep quality were significant predictors of lower quality of life. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that insomnia and poor sleep are common in patients with epilepsy and may adversely impact quality of life. Further studies should examine whether improvements in sleep can improve seizure control and quality of life of these patients. CITATION: Vendrame M; Yang B; Jackson S; Auerbach SH. Insomnia and epilepsy: a questionnaire-based study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):141-146.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2013; 9(2):141-146. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: About 25-50% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. An appropriate assessment and treatment of such problems might improve the quality of life in such patients and reduce both the severity of ADHD and the impairment it causes. According to data in the literature and to the overall complexity of the interaction between ADHD and sleep, five sleep phenotypes may be identified in ADHD: (i) a sleep phenotype characterized mainly by a hypo-arousal state, resembling narcolepsy, which may be considered a "primary" form of ADHD (i.e. without the interference of other sleep disorders); (ii) a phenotype associated with delayed sleep onset latency and with a higher risk of bipolar disorder; (iii) a phenotype associated with sleep disordered breathing (SDB); (iv) another phenotype related to restless legs syndrome (RLS) and/or periodic limb movements; (v) lastly, a phenotype related to epilepsy/or EEG interictal discharges. Each sleep phenotype is characterized by peculiar sleep alterations expressed by either an increased or decreased level of arousal during sleep that have important treatment implications. Treatment with stimulants is recommended above all in the primary form of ADHD, whereas treatment of the main sleep disorders or of co-morbidities (i.e. bipolar disorders and epilepsy) is preferred in the other sleep phenotypes. All the sleep phenotypes, except the primary form of ADHD and those related to focal benign epilepsy or focal EEG discharges, are associated with an increased level of arousal during sleep. Recent studies have demonstrated that both an increase and a decrease in arousal are ascribable to executive dysfunctions controlled by prefrontal cortical regions (the main cortical areas implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD), and that the arousal system, which may be hyperactivated or hypoactivated depending on the form of ADHD/sleep phenotype.Medical Hypotheses 05/2012; 79(2):147-53. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Benign Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is considered a benign type of epilepsy; nevertheless a significant number of children present clear and heterogeneous cognitive deficits such as memory disturbances. Thus far, evidence about memory impairment has been less than conclusive. To clarify the quality of memory functioning in BECTS children, an analysis of existing findings has been conducted trying to identify the type of memory deficits and their underlying factors. Short- and long-term declarative memory are impaired in BECTS children, with both verbal and non-verbal material; co-occurrence of attentional, linguistic and behavioral disturbances is reported. In children with continuous spikes and waves during the slow-wave sleep pattern the normal downscaling of slow-wave activity is absent, disrupting plastic brain processes of sleep-related memory consolidation. In BECTS children, NREM sleep interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may interfere in the dialogue between temporal and frontal cortex, causing declarative memory deficits: the role of NREM sleep IED acquires a special importance, leading to methodological guidance and suggesting aims for future researches in the field of childhood neuroscience.Brain and Cognition 12/2013; 84(1):123-131. · 2.82 Impact Factor