To analyze sleep architecture and NREM sleep instability by means of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in children with benign epilepsy with rolandic spikes (BERS).
Ten children with BERS, drug free at the time of the study and 10 age-matched normal controls were included in this study. Sleep was visually scored for sleep architecture and CAP using standard criteria.
Sleep architecture in BERS showed only few significant differences vs. controls with a reduction of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and REM sleep percentage. CAP analysis revealed several significant differences: reduced total CAP rate, mainly in sleep stage 2, and reduced EEG slow oscillations and arousals during stages N1 and N2.
Sleep architecture is not importantly affected in BERS but CAP analysis reveals a decrease of NREM instability, mainly in sleep stage 2. Since there is a spindle-related spike activation in BERS, we speculate that the decrease of CAP and of EEG slow oscillations and arousals might be linked with the inhibitory action of spindling activity and spikes on arousals.
CAP analysis discloses sleep structure abnormalities in children with BERS not shown by the classical sleep scoring. Spike activity and CAP A1 subtypes seem to be mutually exclusive probably because centro-temporal spikes disturb the physiological synchronization mechanisms needed for the generation of slow-wave components of CAP.
"In last years, a study performed in children with BECTS suggested a normal sleep organization and the number of arousals was not increased (Clemens & Olah, 1987). More recently, Bruni et al. (2010) analyzed sleep architecture and NREM sleep instability by evaluating the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in children with BECTS. They studied ten drug free patients and ten age-matched normal controls. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is considered a benign type of epilepsy; nevertheless a significant number of children present clear and heterogeneous cognitive deficits such as memory disturbances. Thus far, evidence about memory impairment has been less than conclusive. To clarify the quality of memory functioning in BECTS children, an analysis of existing findings has been conducted trying to identify the type of memory deficits and their underlying factors. Short- and long-term declarative memory are impaired in BECTS children, with both verbal and non-verbal material; co-occurrence of attentional, linguistic and behavioral disturbances is reported. In children with continuous spikes and waves during the slow-wave sleep pattern the normal downscaling of slow-wave activity is absent, disrupting plastic brain processes of sleep-related memory consolidation. In BECTS children, NREM sleep interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) may interfere in the dialogue between temporal and frontal cortex, causing declarative memory deficits: the role of NREM sleep IED acquires a special importance, leading to methodological guidance and suggesting aims for future researches in the field of childhood neuroscience.
Brain and Cognition 12/2013; 84(1):123-131. DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2013.11.014 · 2.48 Impact Factor
"One of the possible neurochemical substrates could be the increase in GABA-ergic transmission , a mechanism invoked to explain the effect of direct vagal nerve stimulation . Further corroborating evidence comes from a recent report of reduced cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) rate in patients with RE . Cyclic alternating pattern rate is an index of sleep instability and is positively correlated with predominance of sympathetic drive . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated 50 young patients with a diagnosis of Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) for the presence of abnormalities in autonomic tone compared with 50 young patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with absences and 50 typically developing children of comparable age. We analyzed time domain (N-N interval, pNN50) and frequency domain (High Frequency (HF), Low Frequency (LF) and LF/HF ratio) indices from ten-minute resting EKG activity. Patients with RE showed significantly higher HF and lower LF power and lower LF/HF ratio than controls, independent of the epilepsy group, and did not show significant differences in any other autonomic index with respect to the two control groups. In RE, we found a negative relationship between both seizure load and frequency of sleep interictal EEG abnormalities with parasympathetic drive levels. These changes might be the expression of adaptive mechanisms to prevent the excessive sympathetic drive seen in patients with refractory epilepsies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RESuMO Introdução: Há um interesse crescente nas relações entre sono e epilepsia incentivado pela compreensão de que existem interações potencialmente relevantes nas duas direções. Embora o papel do sono na hipersincronização e a crescente preocupação na geração de crises sejam bem conhecidos, o grau no qual o sono pode facilitar ou induzir a um fenômeno epileptogênico, nas epilepsias lesionais, permanece indefinido. As epilepsias lesionais parecem apresentar um mecanismo particular de epileptogenicidade e o esclarecimento do papel da macro e microarquitetura do sono pode auxiliar na antecipação e monitorização de fenômenos epilépticos relacionados ao sono, conforme a etiologia da epilepsia. Objetivo: revisar e discutir as relações entre sono e epilepsia na infância e adolescência relacionando as alterações estruturais do sono à etiologia da epilepsia. Métodos: revi-são bibliográfica utilizando o banco de dados Medline, abrangendo os estudos publicados nos últimos quinze anos, com as palavras-chave (unitermos) sono e epilepsia. Conclusões: epilepsia refratária durante a infância parece influenciar a organização do sono principalmente naqueles pacientes com etiologia lesional. A definição do tipo de epilepsia pode ser importante na antecipação dos distúrbios de sono nesta popu-lação. unitermos: sono, epilepsia, displasia cortical, padrão cíclico alternante. ABSTRACT Evaluation of sleep architecture in children with refractory epilepsy Introduction: There has been a growing interest in the relations between sleep and epilepsy, kindled by the realization that there are many potentially relevant two-way interactions. Even though the hyper-synchronizing role of sleep and its attending increase in the probability of seizure generation are well known, the degree to which sleep may facilitate or induce epileptogenic phenomena in lesional epilepsies remains unclear. The lesional epilepsies seems to have intrinsic epileptogenic properties and the knowledge about sleep macro and microarchiteture could help clinician to anticipate and monitor sleep-related epileptic phenomena according to the etiology of the epilepsy Objective: Discuss the relationship between sleep and epilepsy in childhood and adolescence. Methods: Literature review in journals indexed through Medline, from the last 15 years. Conclusion: Refractory epilepsy during childhood influences sleep organization mainly in patients with lesional etiology. The definition of the type of epilepsy is important to anticipate sleep disorders in this population.
Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2011; 17(1). DOI:10.1590/S1676-26492011000100004
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