Molecular pathogenesis of follicular cell derived thyroid cancers.
ABSTRACT Thyroid cancers are the most common endocrine malignancy. Radiation exposure, family history of thyroid cancer and some inherited conditions are the most important predisposing factors for the development of thyroid cancer. Three mitogenic signalling pathways have been described in the thyroid cell, which are influenced by various stimulatory and inhibitory hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Various proto-oncogenes and oncogenes like ras, braf, trk, met and RET also play a role in the signal transduction systems. Two theories have been described in thyroid cancer pathogenesis, the foetal cell carcinogenesis theory and the more common, multistep carcinogenesis theory. The multistep carcinogenesis theory is now the accepted model in many human cancers, including thyroid cancer. The early events of tumour formation are the consequence of activation of either various growth factors or the proto-oncogenes like ras, met or ret. This results in the formation of differentiated thyroid cancers like the papillary, follicular or Hurthle cell cancers. The later stages of tumour formation involve further activation of proto-oncogenes and loss or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes like p53. Based on this theory, follicular carcinomas are generated from follicular adenomas and papillary carcinomas from precursor cells generated from thyrocytes. Anaplastic carcinoma may develop from papillary or follicular carcinoma by dedifferentiation. In this review article, we highlight the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid tumours.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no change in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic men. A recent pooled analysis, including 5 prospective studies from the USA, showed that the summary hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for women was 1.19 (0.84-1.69) and was 0.96 (0.65-1.42) for men. Therefore, the results are controversial and the association between diabetes and thyroid cancer is probably weak. Further studies are necessary to confirm their relationship. Proposed mechanisms for such a possible link between diabetes and thyroid cancer include elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, insulin, glucose and triglycerides, insulin resistance, obesity, vitamin D deficiency, and antidiabetic medications such as insulin or sulfonylureas.Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:578285. · 1.20 Impact Factor