Conkiss: Conformal Kidneys Sparing 3D Noncoplanar Radiotherapy Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer As an Alternative to IMRT

University of Pécs, Institute of Oncotherapy, Pécs, Hungary.
Medical dosimetry: official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (Impact Factor: 0.76). 03/2011; 36(1):35-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.meddos.2009.11.001
Source: PubMed


When treating pancreatic cancer using standard (ST) 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) beam arrangements, the kidneys often receive a higher dose than their probable tolerance limit. Our aim was to elaborate a new planning method that--similarly to IMRT--effectively spares the kidneys without compromising the target coverage. Conformal kidneys sparing (CONKISS) 5-field, noncoplanar plans were compared with ST plans for 23 consecutive patients retrospectively. Optimal beam arrangements were used consisting of a left- and right-wedged beam-pair and an anteroposterior beam inclined in the caudal direction. The wedge direction determination (WEDDE) algorithm was developed to adjust the adequate direction of wedges. The aimed organs at risk (OARs) mean dose limits were: kidney <12 Gy, liver <25 Gy, small bowels <30 Gy, and spinal cord maximum <45 Gy. Conformity and homogeneity indexes with z-test were used to evaluate and compare the different planning approaches. The mean dose to the kidneys decreased significantly (p < 0.05): left kidney 7.7 vs. 10.7 Gy, right kidney 9.1 vs. 11.7 Gy. Meanwhile the mean dose to the liver increased significantly (18.1 vs. 15.0 Gy). The changes in the conformity, homogeneity, and in the doses to other OARs were not significant. The CONKISS method balances the load among the OARs and significantly reduces the dose to the kidneys, without any significant change in the conformity and homogeneity. Using 3D-CRT the CONKISS method can be a smart alternative to IMRT to enhance the possibility of dose escalation.

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Available from: Akos Gulyban, Oct 05, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy (CRT) is widely used for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Noncoplanar (NCP) 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and coplanar (CP) IMRT have been reported to lower the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). The purpose of this article is to examine the utility of noncoplanar beam angles in IMRT for the management of pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients who were treated with CRT for unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head or neck were re-planned using CP and NCP beams in 3DCRT and IMRT with the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. RESULTS: Compared to CP IMRT, NCP IMRT had similar target coverage with slightly increased maximum point dose, 5,799 versus 5,775 cGy (p = 0.008). NCP IMRT resulted in lower mean kidney dose, 787 versus 1,210 cGy (p < 0.0001) and higher mean liver dose, 1,208 versus 1,061 cGy (p < 0.0001). Also, NCP IMRT resulted in similar mean stomach dose, 1,257 versus 1,248 cGy (p = 0.86) but slightly higher mean small bowel dose, 981 versus 866 cGy (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The NCP IMRT was able to significantly decrease bilateral kidney dose, but did not improve other dose-volume criteria. The use of NCP beam angles is preferred only in patients with risk factors for treatment-related kidney dysfunction.
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