Conservative management of stage IA1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with positive resection margins after conization
ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficacy of cold knife conization with electrocauterization and the feasibility of conservative management in patients with stage IA1 carcinoma of the cervix according to margin status after conization.
Medical and histopathological records of 108 patients with stage IA1 cervical carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Patients underwent cold knife conization with electrocauterization or conization followed by hysterectomy. Disease recurrence was defined as a histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or higher grade lesion.
Forty patients underwent conization followed by hysterectomy; of 27 women with positive margins, 14 (35%) had a residual lesion. Sixty-eight patients underwent conization without further surgical intervention. Forty patients had a negative resection margin without recurrence, while 28 had a positive resection margin: positive exocervical (n=11), positive endocervical (n=17). Among these, there were 7 cases of recurrence: positive exocervical (n=1); positive endocervical (n=6).
Cold knife conization with electrocauterization appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with stage IA1 cervical carcinoma if careful follow-up is guaranteed for patients with CIN 3 exocervical resection margins. However, patients with CIN 3 endocervical resection margins should be managed surgically with repeat conization or hysterectomy.
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ABSTRACT: The terminology for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract has a long history marked by disparate diagnostic terms derived from multiple specialties. It often does not reflect current knowledge of HPV biology and pathogenesis. A consensus process was convened to recommend terminology unified across lower anogenital sites. The goal was to create a histopathologic nomenclature system that reflects current knowledge of HPV biology, optimally uses available biomarkers, and facilitates clear communication across different medical specialties. The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) project was co-sponsored by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) and included 5 working groups; three work groups performed comprehensive literature reviews and developed draft recommendations. Another work group provided the historical background and the fifth will continue to foster implementation of the LAST recommendations. After an open comment period, the draft recommendations were presented at a consensus conference attended by LAST work group members, advisors and representatives from 35 stakeholder organizations including professional societies and government agencies. Recommendations were finalized and voted upon at the consensus meeting. The final approved recommendations standardize biologically-relevant histopathologic terminology for HPV-associated squamous intraepithelial lesions and superficially invasive squamous carcinomas across all lower anogenital tract sites and detail appropriate use of specific biomarkers to clarify histologic interpretations and enhance diagnostic accuracy. A plan for disseminating and monitoring recommendation implementation in the practicing community was also developed. The implemented recommendations will facilitate communication between pathologists and their clinical colleagues and improve accuracy of histologic diagnosis with the ultimate goal of providing optimal patient care.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 11/2012; DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e31826916c7 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequency of positive cone margins and its significance in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia are under controversy. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with positive cone margin status and to evaluate its clinical significance in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Medical records of women who underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure at the Soroka Medical Center (January 2001-July 2011) were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age, extent of dysplasia, endocervical glands involvement, positive margin status, type of margin involved, degree of margin involvement, and postcone endocervical curettage results were evaluated as possible factors associated with persistent/recurrent disease. A total of 376 women were included in the study. Cone margin involvement was observed in 33% (endocervical-22%, ectocervical-8%, both margins-3%). Factors significantly associated with cone margin involvement were older age (older than 35 y), widespread dysplasia in the cone specimen (≥4 sections) (P<0.001 for each), and endocervical glands involvement (P=0.003). Fifty patients (13%) had persistent/recurrent disease. Involvement of the cone margins (focal: hazard ratio=17, P<0.001; extensive: hazard ratio=28, P<0.001) and older age (hazard ratio=1.18 for every 5 additional years, P=0.03) were associated with persistent/recurrent disease. We conclude that women older than 35 yr with widespread high-grade dysplasia in the cone specimen and involvement of endocervical glands are more likely to have positive cone margins. Positive cone margins, particularly when extensively involved, and increased patient age are associated with persistent/recurrent disease. These factors should be considered while planning for further management.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 12/2013; 33(1). DOI:10.1097/PGP.0b013e3182763158 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinomas of the lower anogenital tract that are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection represent a significant disease burden worldwide. The diagnosis and management of their noninvasive precursors has been the subject of extensive study and debate over several decades, accompanied by an evolving understanding of HPV biology. Recent new consensus recommendations for the pathologic diagnosis of these precursor lesions were published in 2012, the result of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology project cosponsored by the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Most salient among the new guidelines are the recommendation to switch to a 2-tiered nomenclature (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) rather than the traditional 3-tiered "intraepithelial neoplasia" terminology, and the recommendation to expand use of the immunohistochemical marker p16 to distinguish between low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/intraepithelial neoplasia 2. The goals of the project were to align diagnostic terminology with our knowledge of HPV biology, increase reproducibility, consolidate diverse systems of nomenclature, and ultimately better determine a patient's true cancer risk. The clinical guidelines for screening and management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia have also been recently updated, most notably with a lengthening of screening intervals. In this review, we focus on the new guidelines put forth for pathologic diagnosis of HPV-related anogenital neoplasia, with discussion of the evidence behind them and their potential implications. We also provide an update on relevant biomarkers, clinical recommendations, and the newest developments relating to cervical neoplasia.