Enhancement of the thermostability and the catalytic efficiency of Bacillus pumilus CBS protease by site-directed mutagenesis.
ABSTRACT The serine alkaline protease, SAPB, from Bacillus pumilus CBS is characterized by its high thermoactivity, pH stability and high catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) as well as its excellent stability and compatibility with an alkaline environment under harsh washing conditions. Based on sequence alignments and homology-modeling studies, the present study identified five amino acids Leu31, Thr33, Asn99, Phe159 and Gly182 being putatively important for the enzymatic behaviour of SAPB. To corroborate the role of these residues, 12 mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and then purified and characterized. The findings demonstrate that the single mutants F159T, F159S and G182S and combined double substitutions were implicated in the decrease of the optimum pH and temperature to 8.0-9.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively, and that mutant F159T/S clearly affected substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency. With regards to the single L31I, T33S and N99Y and combined double and triple mutations, the N99Y mutation strongly improved the half-life times at 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C to 660 and 295 min from of 220 and 80 min for the wild-type enzyme, respectively. More interestingly, this mutation also shifted the optimum temperature from 65 degrees C to 75 degrees C and caused a prominent 31-fold increase in k(cat)/K(m) with N-succinyl-l-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (AAPF). The L31I and T33S mutants were observed to improve mainly the optimum pH from 11.0 to 11.5 and from 11.0 to 12.0, respectively. Kinetic studies of double and triple mutants showed that the cumulative effect of polar uncharged substitutions had a synergistic effect on the P1 position preference using synthetic peptide substrates, which confirms the implication of these amino acids in substrate recognition and catalytic efficiency.
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen bonds occurring in the catalytic triad (Asp32, His64 and Ser221) and the oxyanion hole (Asn155) are very important to the catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis by serine proteases. For the subtilisin NK (nattokinase), a bacterial serine protease, construction and analysis of a three-dimensional structural model suggested that several hydrogen bonds formed by four residues function to stabilize the transition state of the hydrolysis reaction. These four residues are Ser33, Asp60, Ser62 and Thr220. In order to remove the effect of these hydrogen bonds, four mutants (Ser33-->Ala33, Asp60-->Ala60, Ser62-->Ala62, and Thr220-->Ala220) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The results of enzyme kinetics indicated that removal of these hydrogen bonds increases the free-energy of the transition state (DeltaDeltaG(T)). We concluded that these hydrogen bonds are more important for catalysis than for binding the substrate, because removal of these bonds mainly affects the kcat but not the K(m) values. A substrate, SUB1 (succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide), was used during enzyme kinetics experiments. In the present study we have also shown the results of FEP (free-energy perturbation) calculations with regard to the binding and catalysis reactions for these mutant subtilisins. The calculated difference in FEP also suggested that these four residues are more important for catalysis than binding of the substrate, and the simulated values compared well with the experimental values from enzyme kinetics. The results of MD (molecular dynamics) simulations further demonstrated that removal of these hydrogen bonds partially releases Asp32, His64 and Asn155 so that the stability of the transition state decreases. Another substrate, SUB2 (H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-p-nitroanilide), was used for FEP calculations and MD simulations.Biochemical Journal 06/2006; 395(3):509-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the molecular complexes between two serine proteinases and two of their protein inhibitors have been determined: subtilisin Carlsberg with the recombinant form of eglin-c from the leech Hirudo medicinalis and subtilisin Novo with chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 from barley seeds. The structures have been fully refined by restrained-parameter least-squares methods to crystallographic R factors (sigma[[Fo[ - [Fc[[/sigma[Fo[) of 0.136 at 1.8-A resolution and 0.154 at 2.1-A resolution, respectively. The 274 equivalent alpha-carbon atoms of the enzymes superpose with an rms deviation of 0.53 A. Sequence changes between the enzymes result in localized structural adjustments. Functional groups in the active sites superpose with an rms deviation of 0.19 A for 161 equivalent atoms; this close similarity in the conformation of active-site residues provides no obvious reason for known differences in catalytic activity between Carlsberg and Novo. Conformational changes in the active-site region indicate a small induced fit of enzyme and inhibitor. Some conformational differences are observed between equivalent active-site residues of subtilisin Carlsberg and alpha-chymotrypsin. Despite differences in tertiary architecture, most enzyme-substrate (inhibitor) interactions are maintained. Subtilisin Carlsberg has a rare cis-peptide bond preceding Thr211 (Gly211 in Novo). Both enzymes contain tightly bound Ca2+ ions. Site 1 is heptacoordinate with the oxygen atoms at the vertices of a pentagonal bipyramid. Site 2 in Carlsberg is probably occupied by a K+ ion in Novo. Conserved water molecules appear to play important structural roles in the enzyme interior, in the inhibitor beta-sheet, and at the enzyme-inhibitor interface. The 62 equivalent alpha-carbon atoms of the inhibitors superpose with an rms deviation of 1.68 A. Sequence changes result in somewhat different packing of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and reactive-site loop relative to each other. Hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions supporting the conformation of the reactive-site loop are conserved. The 24 main-chain plus C beta atoms of P4 to P1' overlap with an rms deviation of 0.19 A. Features contributing to the inhibitory nature of eglin-c and CI-2 are discussed.Biochemistry 09/1988; 27(17):6582-98. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus F1 that produced an extremely thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from decomposed oil palm branches. The isolated protease was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography with a 128-fold increase in specific activity and 75% recovery. The protease, which is a serine-type enzyme, has a relative molecular mass of 33 500 by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but only 20 000 by gel-filtration chromatography. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 9.0 and was stable for 24 h at 70 C and in the pH range from 8.0 to 10.0. It was capable of hydrolysing many soluble and insoluble protein substrates but no esterase activity was detected. The enzyme activity was markedly inhibited by Co2+ and Hg2+, whereas Mg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Sr2+ had little or no inhibitory effect. However, Mn2+ strongly activated the protease activity. The protease exhibited a high degree of thermostability [t 1/2 (85 C) = 4 h, (90 C) = 25 min]. The stability at higher temperatures (85 C and above) was shown to be dependent on the presence of Ca2+.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/1994; 40(6):822-827. · 3.69 Impact Factor