Enhancement of the thermostability and the catalytic efficiency of Bacillus pumilus CBS protease by site-directed mutagenesis.
ABSTRACT The serine alkaline protease, SAPB, from Bacillus pumilus CBS is characterized by its high thermoactivity, pH stability and high catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) as well as its excellent stability and compatibility with an alkaline environment under harsh washing conditions. Based on sequence alignments and homology-modeling studies, the present study identified five amino acids Leu31, Thr33, Asn99, Phe159 and Gly182 being putatively important for the enzymatic behaviour of SAPB. To corroborate the role of these residues, 12 mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and then purified and characterized. The findings demonstrate that the single mutants F159T, F159S and G182S and combined double substitutions were implicated in the decrease of the optimum pH and temperature to 8.0-9.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively, and that mutant F159T/S clearly affected substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency. With regards to the single L31I, T33S and N99Y and combined double and triple mutations, the N99Y mutation strongly improved the half-life times at 50 degrees C and 60 degrees C to 660 and 295 min from of 220 and 80 min for the wild-type enzyme, respectively. More interestingly, this mutation also shifted the optimum temperature from 65 degrees C to 75 degrees C and caused a prominent 31-fold increase in k(cat)/K(m) with N-succinyl-l-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (AAPF). The L31I and T33S mutants were observed to improve mainly the optimum pH from 11.0 to 11.5 and from 11.0 to 12.0, respectively. Kinetic studies of double and triple mutants showed that the cumulative effect of polar uncharged substitutions had a synergistic effect on the P1 position preference using synthetic peptide substrates, which confirms the implication of these amino acids in substrate recognition and catalytic efficiency.
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ABSTRACT: The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108367. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Enzymes are widely applied in various industrial applications and processes, including the food and beverage, animal feed, textile, detergent and medical industries. Enzymes screened from natural origins are often engineered before entering the market place because their native forms do not meet the requirements for industrial application. Protein engineering is concerned with the design and construction of novel enzymes with tailored functional properties, including stability, catalytic activity, reaction product inhibition and substrate specificity. Two broad approaches have been used for enzyme engineering, namely, rational design and directed evolution. The powerful and revolutionary techniques so far developed for protein engineering provide excellent opportunities for the design of industrial enzymes with specific properties and production of high-value products at lower production costs. The present review seeks to highlight the major fields of enzyme application and to provide an updated overview on previous protein engineering studies wherein natural enzymes were modified to meet the operational conditions required for industrial application.Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 11/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alkaline catalases with good properties are desirable in the textile industry. In the present work, by applying the PoPMuSiC algorithm for the calculation of the folding free energy, Lys114 of a Bacillus catalase was rationally selected and engineered to improve the thermostability. Interestingly, the Lys114Tyr, Lys114Val, Lys114Met and Lys114Ile variants showed higher catalytic efficiencies when compared with the wild-type protein. In particular, the Lys114Tyr variant showed the highest catalytic efficiency, which was 5.3-fold of the wild-type catalase. The production of the Lys114Tyr variant may represent an improved catalase suitable for industrial purposes.PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 09/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor