Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in a Mediterranean island.
ABSTRACT Knowledge of the factors affecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife is limited. Here we analyse which local landscape characteristics are associated with the presence of toxoplasmosis in wild boar, Sus scrofa, on the island of Corsica, France. Meat juice samples from 1399 wild boars collected during two hunting seasons were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (titre 1:4). The overall seroprevalence was 0.55 (95% CI 0.50-0.59) for the first year and 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.35) for the second year. Seroprevalence varied according to age and county. At the county level, seropositivity in adults was related to farm density during year 1, and to habitat fragmentation, farm density and altitude during year 2. The exposure of wild boar to T. gondii is thus variable according to landscape characteristics and probably results in a variable risk of transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Pascal Boireau, Jun 12, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective. The aims of the study were: 1) to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii from wild boar meat; 1) establish seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the wild boar population; 3) establish risk factors concerned in higher possible seroprevalence; 4) to estimate the usefulness of meat juice for detection of T. gondii antibodies in wild boar. Material and methods. Diaphragm meat juice samples from 656 wild boar (Sus scrofa) were collected during the hunting seasons between September 2008 – October 2010 from 9 districts of the Czech Republic. The samples were stratified per age category into 2 groups: piglets (n = 279) and yearlings together with adults (n = 377). The in-house ELISA test was used for the detection of antibodies against T. gondii from the meat juice samples. Results. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by in-house ELISA in 260 of 656 wild boars (40%) with 26% prevalence in piglets (72/279) and 50% prevalence in yearlings and adults (188/377). The district total seroprevalences ranged between 32% – 59%, with a significantly higher prevalence in the district of Havlíčkův Brod (59%). Statistically significant differences (p-value < 0.05) were found between 2 age categories, and between 9 districts, with a significant variability in the district of Havlíčkův Brod. Seroprevalence correlated positively with farm density, but without any statistical significance. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 05/2015; 22(2):231-235. DOI:10.5604/12321966.1152071 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is a major zoonosis, and its prevention requires multiple approaches due to the complex life-cycle of its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii. Environmental contamination by oocysts is a key factor in the transmission of T. gondii to both humans and meat-producing animals; however, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly understood. We analysed the distribution of T. gondii seropositivity in a sample of 210 cats, including the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris), the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and their hybrids that were collected in Central and Eastern France between 1996 and 2006. We searched for spatial variability among communes and temporal variations among years to relate this variability to landscape and meteorological conditions, which can affect the population dynamics of rodent hosts and the survival of oocysts. The overall seroprevalence was 65.2% (95% CI: 58.6–71.4). As expected, adults were more often infected than young individuals, while the occurrence of infection was not related to cat genotypes. Seroprevalence correlated significantly with farm density and the North-Atlantic Oscillation index, which describes temporal variations of meteorological conditions at the continental scale. The highest seroprevalence values were obtained in areas with high farm densities and during years with cool and moist winters. These results suggest that both farming areas and years with cool and wet winters are associated with increased T. gondii seroprevalence in cats. As cat infection determines the environmental contamination by oocysts, climate and landscape characteristics should be taken into account to improve the risk analysis and prevention of T. gondii.International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 12/2013; 2:278–285. DOI:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.09.006
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673) or the "Veluwe" (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16240. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016240 · 3.53 Impact Factor