Synopsis of partial-body radiation diagnostic biomarkers and medical management of radiation injury workshop.
ABSTRACT Radiation exposures from accidents, nuclear detonations or terrorist incidents are unlikely to be homogeneous; however, current biodosimetric approaches are developed and validated primarily in whole-body irradiation models. A workshop was held at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in May 2008 to draw attention to the need for partial-body biodosimetry, to discuss current knowledge, and to identify the gaps to be filled. A panel of international experts and the workshop attendees discussed the requirements and concepts for a path forward. This report addresses eight key areas identified by the Workshop Program Committee for future focus: (1) improved cytogenetics, (2) clinical signs and symptoms, (3) cutaneous bioindicators, (4) organ-specific biomarkers, (5) biophysical markers of dose, (6) integrated diagnostic approaches, (7) confounding factors, and (8) requirements for post-event medical follow-up. For each area, the status, advantages and limitations of existing approaches and suggestions for new directions are presented.
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ABSTRACT: In the event of a terrorist-mediated attack in the United States using radiological or improvised nuclear weapons, it is expected that hundreds of thousands of people could be exposed to life-threatening levels of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that genome-wide expression analysis of the peripheral blood (PB) can generate gene expression profiles that can predict radiation exposure and distinguish the dose level of exposure following total body irradiation (TBI). However, in the event a radiation-mass casualty scenario, many victims will have heterogeneous exposure due to partial shielding and it is unknown whether PB gene expression profiles would be useful in predicting the status of partially irradiated individuals. Here, we identified gene expression profiles in the PB that were characteristic of anterior hemibody-, posterior hemibody- and single limb-irradiation at 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy in C57Bl6 mice. These PB signatures predicted the radiation status of partially irradiated mice with a high level of accuracy (range 79-100%) compared to non-irradiated mice. Interestingly, PB signatures of partial body irradiation were poorly predictive of radiation status by site of injury (range 16-43%), suggesting that the PB molecular response to partial body irradiation was anatomic site specific. Importantly, PB gene signatures generated from TBI-treated mice failed completely to predict the radiation status of partially irradiated animals or non-irradiated controls. These data demonstrate that partial body irradiation, even to a single limb, generates a characteristic PB signature of radiation injury and thus may necessitate the use of multiple signatures, both partial body and total body, to accurately assess the status of an individual exposed to radiation.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(7):e11535. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The DoD has achieved success with recent automatic test equipment (ATE) families, as evidenced by the navy's consolidated automated support system (CASS) and the army's integrated family of test equipment (IFTE) programs. However, as these systems age, the increased requirements for technology insertion due to instrument obsolescence and the demands of advanced electronics are becoming evident. Recent advances in test technology promise to yield reduced total ownership costs (TOC) for ATE which can incorporate the new technology. The DoD automatic test system (ATS) executive agent office (EAO) objective is to significantly reduce total ownership cost. Several objectives have been identified including use of synthetic instruments, support for legacy test product sets (TPSs), and more efficient ways of developing TPSs. The NxTest software architecture will meet the objectives by providing an open systems approach to the system software. This will allow for the incorporation of commercial applications in the TPS development and execution environments and support current advances in test technologyIEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 03/2000; · 0.34 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: Selecting the right high-density VXI switching product [for ATE][show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Test requirements continually increase the demands on switching products in automatic test equipment (ATE). Test systems for today's semiconductor, medical, telecommunications defense, and automotive products require large numbers of switch channels with a wide variety of power handling and bandwidth requirements. At the same time switching products must fit within the test budget. By knowing what to look for, the test engineer can select a switch product that is cost-effective, not only at purchase time, but over the life of the test systemAUTOTESTCON '99. IEEE Systems Readiness Technology Conference, 1999. IEEE; 02/1999