Collaborative Virtual Geographic Environment: concepts, features and construction
ABSTRACT Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE), or Geographic Virtual Environment (GeoVE) is considered to have the potential to extend the power of geographic information visualization methods. As the increasing development of computer network and Internet technologies, Distributed VGE (DVGE) has been developed to support multi-users to participate and share the same virtual geographic workspace. Nowadays, more and more tasks require group work, and many of them are spatial related, although DVGE extends the scope for participants to handle geographic problems, it still lacks efficient mechanism to make peoples' collaborative work more efficient. In this regard, we integrate CSCW and AI with CVGE and bring forward Collaborative VGE (CVGE) to support collaborative work in VGE. This paper illustrates the seven distinguished features of CVGE as a criterion for CVGE system design and assess; then analyses the construction of CVGE on the aspects of Individual, System and Society; the construction graphic shows that the perception model, behavior model and collaboration model are the key ingredients of a CVGE system. As an application of CVGE, a collaborative Virtual Forest Environment (VFE) is introduced in which VRML, Agent, Electronic Whiteboard and other technologies are applied
- Pain 02/2005; 113(1-2):9-19. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a special issue of the journal on the subject of Project Varenius, a three- year effort funded by the US National Science Foundation to advance geographic information science. Geographic information is first defined as an abstraction of primitive tuples linking geographic locations to general descriptors. Geographic concepts originate in the human mind, and are instantiated in geographic information. Geographic information technologies apply digital methods to geographic information. Finally, geographic information science is defined as the set of basic research issues arising from these technologies. Three motivations are presented for research in this area: scientific, technological, and societal. Within the project, geographic information science is structured by a three-part framework that includes cognitive, computational, and societal issues. The paper ends with an introduction to these three parts, which define the infrastructure of the project and are discussed at length by the subsequent three papers.International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 01/1999; 13:731-745.
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ABSTRACT: Anxiety has been described as an important comorbidity in patients suffering from chronic pain. However, in animals the connection between persistent pain and anxiety has hardly been investigated. Therefore, in the current study it was assessed whether chronic pain also causes anxiety-like behaviour in animals and if it can be reversed by analgesic or anxiolytic drugs. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) and chronic constriction injury (CCI). Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed by the "electronic algometer", while anxiety-like behaviour was measured by using the elevated plus maze. In both neuropathic pain models, rats exhibited mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas a significant increase in anxiety-like behaviour was observed only in CCI rats (time spent in open arms decreased significantly from 99+/-15.8s in sham animals to 33.4+/-7.5s in CCI animals). Furthermore, midazolam (0.5mg/kg; i.p.) significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in both sham- and CCI-operated animals without influencing mechanical hypersensitivity. Morphine (3mg/kg; i.p.) and gabapentin (30 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly attenuated anxiety-like behaviour in the CCI lesioned rats: morphine increased entries into open arms from 3.0+/-0.4 to 7.7+/-1.4 (P=0.01), gabapentin elevated this value from 4.7+/-1 to 7.5+/-0.9 (P=0.02). These data suggest that rats subjected to neuropathic pain models develop anxiety-like behaviour which can be reversed by appropriate analgesic treatment. Morphine and gabapentin had no anxiolytic-like effect in sham treated animals, thus their effect on anxiety-like behaviour in the neuropathic pain model is likely indirect via their anti-nociceptive properties.Pain 07/2008; 139(2):349-57. · 5.64 Impact Factor