Influence of feeding raw or extruded feline diets on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of African wildcats (Felis lybica).
ABSTRACT The African wildcat is one of the closest ancestors to the domestic cat and is believed to have similar nutrient requirements, but research is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a high-protein extruded kibble diet vs. a raw meat diet on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, and blood metabolite concentrations in African wildcats. Five wildcats were randomized onto either a high-protein (>50% crude protein) extruded kibble diet or a raw meat diet. The study was executed as a crossover design, with 21-d periods, consisting of a 16-d adaptation phase followed by a 4-d total fecal and urine collection phase. Cats were housed individually in metabolism cages and fed to maintain body weight (BW). A fresh fecal sample was collected for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) analyses. Blood was analyzed for serum chemistry and leptin concentration. Food intake (as is) did not differ (P>0.05) between diets. Food intake and fecal output (g/d DMB) were greater (P<0.05) when cats consumed the kibble diet. Protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05) when cats were fed the raw meat diet vs. the kibble diet. Nitrogen intake was greater (P<0.05) when cats consumed the kibble diet, and more (P<0.05) nitrogen was present in the feces; however, the percentage of nitrogen retained and nitrogen balance did not differ (P>0.05). Fecal scores, ammonia, SCFA, and BCFA concentrations did not differ (P>0.05) between diets. Fecal butyrate molar ratio was higher (P<0.01) when cats consumed the kibble diet. Blood analyses demonstrated few differences between diets, but alanine aminotransferase activity and bicarbonate were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the commercial raw meat diet. Owing to lack of differences, these data indicate that African wildcats can readily utilize a high protein extruded kibble diet, and may be able to replace a commercial raw meat diet.
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ABSTRACT: Our objectives were to evaluate the composition of whole 1- to- 3-day-old chicks (Whole), ground adult chicken (Ground), chicken-based canned diet (Canned), and chicken-based extruded diet (Extruded); and evaluate apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of these diets by four captive African wildcats (Felis silvestrus lybica) utilizing a Latin Square design. We analyzed diets for macronutrient and mineral (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, and S) composition, and screened for potentially pathogenic bacteria. Canned and Extruded diets tested negative for all microbes and met macronutrient and mineral recommendations for domestic cat foods [AAFCO (2012). Official publication. Oxford, IN: AAFCO]. Whole prey diets (Ground and Whole) met macronutrient requirements for domestic cats; however, they were below recommendations in some minerals [Mn, Cu, K, and Na; AAFCO (2012). Official publication. Oxford, IN: AAFCO], and tested positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella, E. coli spp.). For all diets, apparent total tract organic matter digestibility was high (>85%). Organic matter digestibility was higher (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed Ground (94%) compared to those fed Canned, Extruded, or Whole (87, 86, and 85%, respectively). Apparent total tract crude protein digestibility was lower than expected (i.e., <85%) for cats fed Extruded (81%) and fat digestibility was lower than expected (i.e., <90%) for cats fed Whole (82%). Cats fed whole prey items tested herein adequately maintained BW short-term; however, long-term studies are needed. These data indicate that there may be a need to monitor whole prey composition and when necessary, adjust the diet to account for potential deficiencies. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Zoo Biology 09/2013; 32(5). DOI:10.1002/zoo.21084 · 0.85 Impact Factor
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 12/2013; 243(11):1549-1558. DOI:10.2460/javma.243.11.1549 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we report on the first edition of the HEp-2 Cells Classification contest, held at the 2012 edition of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition, and focused on Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) image analysis. The IIF methodology is used to detect autoimmune diseases by searching for antibodies in the patient serum but, unfortunately, it is still a subjective method that depends too heavily on the experience and expertise of the physician. This has been the motivation behind the recent initial developments of computer aided diagnosis systems in this field. The contest aimed to bring together researchers interested in the performance evaluation of algorithms for IIF image analysis: 28 different recognition systems able to automatically recognize the staining pattern of cells within IIF images were tested on the same undisclosed dataset. In particular, the dataset takes into account the six staining patterns that occur most frequently in the daily diagnostic practice: centromere, nucleolar, homogeneous, fine speckled, coarse speckled and cytoplasmic. In the paper we briefly describe all the submitted methods, analyze the obtained results and discuss the design choices conditioning the performance of each method.06/2013; DOI:10.1109/TMI.2013.2268163