Impact of postoperative pancreatic fistula on surgical outcome--the need for a classification-driven risk management.
ABSTRACT The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification allows comparison of incidence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Its post hoc character, however, does not provide a guideline for the treatment of POPF in individual patient. We therefore studied the association of POPF type A-C on secondary surgical morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing pancreatic resection.
Between 3/2001-12/2007, 483 patients underwent pancreatic resections. POPF were classified according to the ISGPF classification. All patient data were entered in a clinical data management system prospectively.
Patients who developed POPF had significantly more vascular but not other surgical complications than patients without POPF. Patients with POPF A had no vascular or surgical complications. Twenty one of the 29 patients with POPF C had surgical complications (17 vascular complications). Mortality attributed to surgical complications after POPF C was 5/29. A soft pancreatic consistency (OR 8.5; p < 0.008) and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 (OR 4.4; p = 0,065) were predictors for the development of POPF C.
POPF C is associated with vascular complications like erosion bleeding and other surgical complications like delayed gastric emptying or pleural effusions. A soft pancreatic consistency and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 are early predictors for the development of POPF C.
- Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift - DEUT MED WOCHENSCHR. 01/2008; 133(23):1235-1239.
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ABSTRACT: To analyze clinical courses and outcome of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) after major pancreatic surgery. Although PPH is the most life-threatening complication following pancreatic surgery, standardized rules for its management do not exist. Between 1992 and 2006, 1524 patients operated on for pancreatic diseases were included in a prospective database. A risk stratification of PPH according to the following parameters was performed: severity of PPH classified as mild (drop of hemoglobin concentration <3 g/dL) or severe (>3 g/dL), time of PPH occurrence (early, first to fifth postoperative day; late, after sixth day), coincident pancreatic fistula, intraluminal or extraluminal bleeding manifestation, and presence of "complex" vascular pathologies (erosions, pseudoaneurysms). Success rates of interventional endoscopy and angiography in preventing relaparotomy were analyzed as well as PPH-related overall outcome. Prevalence of PPH was 5.7% (n = 87) distributed almost equally among patients suffering from malignancies, borderline tumors, and focal pancreatitis (n = 47) and from chronic pancreatitis (n = 40). PPH-related overall mortality of 16% (n = 14) was closely associated with 1) the occurrence of pancreatic fistula (13 of 14); 2) vascular pathologies, ie, erosions and pseudoaneurysms (12 of 14); 3) delayed PPH occurrence (14 of 14); and 4) underlying disease with lethal PPH found only in patients with soft texture of the pancreatic remnant, while no patient with chronic pancreatitis died. Conversely, primary severity of PPH (mild vs. severe) and the kind of index operation (Whipple resection, pylorus-preserving partial pancreaticoduodenectomy, organ-preserving procedures) had no influence on outcome of PPH. Endoscopy was successful in 3 from 15 patients (20%), who had intraluminal PPH within the first or second postoperative day. "True," early extraluminal PPH had uniformly to be treated by relaparotomy. Seventeen patients had "false," early extraluminal PPH due to primarily intraluminal bleeding site from the pancreaticoenteric anastomosis with secondary disruption of the anastomosis. From 43 patients subjected to angiography, 25 underwent interventional coiling with a success rate of 80% (n = 20). Overall, relaparotomy was performed in 60 patients among whom 33 underwent surgery as first-line treatment, while 27 were relaparotomied as rescue treatment after failure of interventional endoscopy or radiology. Prognosis of PPH depends mainly on the presence of preceding pancreatic fistula. Decision making as to the indication for nonsurgical interventions should consider time of onset, presence of pancreatic fistula, vascular pathologies, and the underlying disease.Annals of Surgery 08/2007; 246(2):269-80. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is still regarded as a major complication. The incidence of POPF varies greatly in different reports, depending on the definition applied at each surgical center. Our aim was to agree upon an objective and internationally accepted definition to allow comparison of different surgical experiences. An international panel of pancreatic surgeons, working in well-known, high-volume centers, reviewed the literature on the topic and worked together to develop a simple, objective, reliable, and easy-to-apply definition of POPF, graded primarily on clinical impact. A POPF represents a failure of healing/sealing of a pancreatic-enteric anastomosis or a parenchymal leak not directly related to an anastomosis. An all-inclusive definition is a drain output of any measurable volume of fluid on or after postoperative day 3 with an amylase content greater than 3 times the serum amylase activity. Three different grades of POPF (grades A, B, C) are defined according to the clinical impact on the patient's hospital course. The present definition and clinical grading of POPF should allow realistic comparisons of surgical experiences in the future when new techniques, new operations, or new pharmacologic agents that may impact surgical treatment of pancreatic disorders are addressed.Surgery 08/2005; 138(1):8-13. · 3.37 Impact Factor