Impact of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula on Surgical Outcome—The Need for a Classification-driven Risk Management

Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Pediatric Surgery, University of Saarland, 66421 Homburg, Saar, Germany.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.8). 04/2010; 14(4):711-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-009-1147-5
Source: PubMed


The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification allows comparison of incidence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Its post hoc character, however, does not provide a guideline for the treatment of POPF in individual patient. We therefore studied the association of POPF type A-C on secondary surgical morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing pancreatic resection.
Between 3/2001-12/2007, 483 patients underwent pancreatic resections. POPF were classified according to the ISGPF classification. All patient data were entered in a clinical data management system prospectively.
Patients who developed POPF had significantly more vascular but not other surgical complications than patients without POPF. Patients with POPF A had no vascular or surgical complications. Twenty one of the 29 patients with POPF C had surgical complications (17 vascular complications). Mortality attributed to surgical complications after POPF C was 5/29. A soft pancreatic consistency (OR 8.5; p < 0.008) and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 (OR 4.4; p = 0,065) were predictors for the development of POPF C.
POPF C is associated with vascular complications like erosion bleeding and other surgical complications like delayed gastric emptying or pleural effusions. A soft pancreatic consistency and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 are early predictors for the development of POPF C.

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    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2010; 14(9):1470-1; author reply 1472. DOI:10.1007/s11605-010-1273-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a serious complication of total gastrectomy (TG) with D2 lymphadenectomy (D2). However, the actual incidence and risk factors are not yet completely understood, due in part to the absence of the widely accepted criteria for POPF following gastrectomy. One hundred and four patients who underwent TG with D2 between March 2007 and December 2009 were included in this study. The incidence and severity of POPF were evaluated according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification. In addition, risk factors for POPF of ISGPF grade B or higher were investigated. POPFs of ISGPF grade B or higher were observed in 23 patients (22.1%). Univariate analysis found that sex, body mass index, and amylase concentration of drainage fluid (D: -AMY) on the first postoperative day (1POD) were significant predictors of POPF grade B or higher. The appropriate cutoff level of D: -AMY on 1POD was calculated as 3398 IU/l. Multivariate analysis showed that D: -AMY ≥3,398 IU/l on 1POD was the only independent risk factor. High D: -AMY on 1POD (≥3,398 IU/l) can predict a grade B or higher POPF, and this value may be useful in the early detection of POPF following TG with D2.
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula remains a troublesome complication after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), and many authors have suggested factors that affect pancreatic leakage after PD. The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) published a classification, but the new criteria adopted have not been substantially validated. The aims of this study were to validate the ISGPF classification and to analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy by a single surgeon. All patient data were entered prospectively into a database. The risk factors for pancreatic fistula were analyzed retrospectively for 247 consecutive patients who underwent conventional pancreatoduodenectomy or pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy between June 2005 and March 2009 at the Samsung Medical Center by a single surgeon. Duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy was performed on all patients. The ISGPF criteria were used to define postoperative pancreatic fistula. Conventional pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 84 patients and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in 163. Postoperative complications occurred in 144 (58.3%) patients, but there was no postoperative in-hospital mortality. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 105 (42.5%) [grade A, 82 (33.2%); grade B, 9 (3.6%); grade C, 14 (5.7%)]. However, no difference was evident between the no fistula group and the grade A fistula group in terms of clinical findings, including postoperative hospital stays (11 versus 12 days, respectively, p = 0.332). Mean durations of hospital stay in the grade B and C fistula groups were significantly longer than in the no fistula group (21 and 28.5 days, respectively; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a soft pancreas and a long operation time (>300 min) were individually associated with pancreatic fistula formation of grades B and C. Although the new ISGPF classification appears to be sound in terms of postoperative pancreatic leakage, grade A fistulas lack clinical implications; thus, we are of the opinion that only grade B and C fistulas should be considered in practice. A soft pancreatic texture and an operation time exceeding 300 min were found to be risk factors of grade B and C pancreatic fistulas.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2011; 15(12):2187-92. DOI:10.1007/s11605-011-1726-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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