Impact of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula on Surgical Outcome—The Need for a Classification-driven Risk Management
ABSTRACT The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification allows comparison of incidence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Its post hoc character, however, does not provide a guideline for the treatment of POPF in individual patient. We therefore studied the association of POPF type A-C on secondary surgical morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing pancreatic resection.
Between 3/2001-12/2007, 483 patients underwent pancreatic resections. POPF were classified according to the ISGPF classification. All patient data were entered in a clinical data management system prospectively.
Patients who developed POPF had significantly more vascular but not other surgical complications than patients without POPF. Patients with POPF A had no vascular or surgical complications. Twenty one of the 29 patients with POPF C had surgical complications (17 vascular complications). Mortality attributed to surgical complications after POPF C was 5/29. A soft pancreatic consistency (OR 8.5; p < 0.008) and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 (OR 4.4; p = 0,065) were predictors for the development of POPF C.
POPF C is associated with vascular complications like erosion bleeding and other surgical complications like delayed gastric emptying or pleural effusions. A soft pancreatic consistency and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 are early predictors for the development of POPF C.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little data are available for non-abscess abdominal fluid collections (AFCs) after pancreatic surgery and their clinical implications. We sought to analyze the natural history of such collections in a population of patients subject to routine postoperative imaging. METHODS: From 1995 to 2011, 709 patients underwent pancreatic resections and routine postoperative monitoring with abdominal ultrasound according to a unit protocol. AFCs were classified as asymptomatic (no interventional treatment), symptomatic (need for percutaneous drainage of sterile, amylase-poor fluid), and pancreatic fistula (drainage of amylase-rich fluid). RESULTS: Ninety-seven of 149 AFCs (65 %) were asymptomatic and resolved spontaneously after a median follow-up of 22 days (interquartile range, 9-52 days). Among 52 (35 %) AFCs requiring percutaneous drainage, there were 20 pancreatic fistulas and 32 symptomatic collections. A stepwise logistic regression model identified three factors associated with the need for interventional treatment, i.e., body mass index ≥25 (odds ratio, 3.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.32 to 7.91), pancreatic fistula (odds ratio, 2.93; 95 % CI, 1.20 to 7.17), and biliary fistula (odds ratio, 3.92; 95 % CI, 1.35 to 11.31). CONCLUSIONS: One fourth of patients develop various types of non-abscess AFCs after pancreatic surgery. Around half of them are asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 05/2013; 17(8). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2234-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic fistula (PF) is a major source of morbidity after pancreatectomy. The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) defines postoperative fistula by an amylase concentration in the abdominal drain of more than three times the serum value on day 3 or more after surgery. However, this definition fails to identify some clinical fistulas. This study examined the association between lipase measured in abdominal drainage fluid and PF. Amylase and lipase levels in the abdominal drain were measured 3 days after pancreatic resection. Grade B and C fistulas were classified as clinical fistulas, regardless of whether the measured amylase concentration was considered positive or negative. The PF group included patients with a clinical fistula and/or those with positive amylase according to the ISGPF definition. Sixty-five patients were included. The median level of lipase was higher in patients with positive amylase than in those with negative amylase: 12,176 versus 64 units/l (P < 0·001). The lipase level was 16,500 units/l in patients with a clinical fistula and 224 units/l in those without a clinical fistula (P = 0·001). Patients with a PF had a higher lipase concentration than those without: 7852 versus 64 units/l (P < 0·001). A lipase level higher than 500 units/l yielded a sensitivity of 88 per cent and a specificity of 75 per cent for PF. For clinical fistulas the sensitivity was 93 per cent and specificity 77 per cent when the threshold for lipase was 1000 units/l. Lipase concentration in the abdominal drain correlated with PF. A threshold of 1000 units/l yielded a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of clinical PF.British Journal of Surgery 08/2012; 99(8):1072-5. DOI:10.1002/bjs.8774 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a case of severe necrotizing pancreatitis that developed after elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Surgeons are confronted in cases of postoperative acute pancreatitis with the dilemma of potential intraabdominal infection and the high risk of a subsequent infection of the retroperitoneal synthetic material. The therapeutic options range from a restrictive regime to radical necrosectomy and multivisceral resection.Annals of Vascular Surgery 08/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2012.10.028 · 1.03 Impact Factor