Impact of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula on Surgical Outcome—The Need for a Classification-driven Risk Management

Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Pediatric Surgery, University of Saarland, 66421 Homburg, Saar, Germany.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.8). 04/2010; 14(4):711-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-009-1147-5
Source: PubMed


The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification allows comparison of incidence and severity of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Its post hoc character, however, does not provide a guideline for the treatment of POPF in individual patient. We therefore studied the association of POPF type A-C on secondary surgical morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing pancreatic resection.
Between 3/2001-12/2007, 483 patients underwent pancreatic resections. POPF were classified according to the ISGPF classification. All patient data were entered in a clinical data management system prospectively.
Patients who developed POPF had significantly more vascular but not other surgical complications than patients without POPF. Patients with POPF A had no vascular or surgical complications. Twenty one of the 29 patients with POPF C had surgical complications (17 vascular complications). Mortality attributed to surgical complications after POPF C was 5/29. A soft pancreatic consistency (OR 8.5; p < 0.008) and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 (OR 4.4; p = 0,065) were predictors for the development of POPF C.
POPF C is associated with vascular complications like erosion bleeding and other surgical complications like delayed gastric emptying or pleural effusions. A soft pancreatic consistency and a high drain lipase activity on postoperative day 3 are early predictors for the development of POPF C.

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    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2010; 14(9):1470-1; author reply 1472. DOI:10.1007/s11605-010-1273-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a serious complication of total gastrectomy (TG) with D2 lymphadenectomy (D2). However, the actual incidence and risk factors are not yet completely understood, due in part to the absence of the widely accepted criteria for POPF following gastrectomy. One hundred and four patients who underwent TG with D2 between March 2007 and December 2009 were included in this study. The incidence and severity of POPF were evaluated according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification. In addition, risk factors for POPF of ISGPF grade B or higher were investigated. POPFs of ISGPF grade B or higher were observed in 23 patients (22.1%). Univariate analysis found that sex, body mass index, and amylase concentration of drainage fluid (D: -AMY) on the first postoperative day (1POD) were significant predictors of POPF grade B or higher. The appropriate cutoff level of D: -AMY on 1POD was calculated as 3398 IU/l. Multivariate analysis showed that D: -AMY ≥3,398 IU/l on 1POD was the only independent risk factor. High D: -AMY on 1POD (≥3,398 IU/l) can predict a grade B or higher POPF, and this value may be useful in the early detection of POPF following TG with D2.
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    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2011; 15(12):2187-92. DOI:10.1007/s11605-011-1726-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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