The Ca channel blocker flunarizine induces caspase-10-dependent apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells
ABSTRACT Flunarizine is a Ca(2+) channel blocker that can be either cytoprotective or cytotoxic, depending on the cell type that is being examined. We show here that flunarizine was cytotoxic for Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as for other hematological maligancies, but not for breast or colon carcinoma cells. Treatment of Jurkat cells with flunarizine resulted in caspase-3 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and laddering of DNA fragments, all of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. Flunarizine-induced DNA fragmentation was inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, the caspase-8/caspase-10 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk, and the caspase-10 inhibitor z-AEVD-fmk, but was not reduced in caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells, indicating the involvement of caspase-10 upstream of caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, FADD recruitment to a death receptor was not involved since flunarizine caused DNA fragmentation in FADD-deficient Jurkat cells. Flunarizine treatment of Jurkat cells also resulted in reactive oxygen species production, dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and caspase-9 activation, although none of these events were necessary for apoptosis induction. Collectively, these findings indicate that flunarizine triggers apoptosis in Jurkat cells via FADD-independent activation of caspase-10. Flunarizine warrants further investigation as a potential anti-cancer agent for the treatment of hematological malignancies.
- SourceAvailable from: Harald Krug
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- "able to activate directly caspases as has been demonstrated earlier  . Another evidence for caspase-10 dependency with no or only less involvement of FADD-adaptor protein has been described recently for another chemical but with the same set of Jurkat cells . This group found the same total inhibition of all effects by the caspase-10 inhibitor zAEVDfmk and no reduction in caspase-8-deficient cells. "
ABSTRACT: Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the most toxic compounds produced by man and distributed in the environment. A multitude of toxic activities have been described, for example, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, and endocrine disruptive effects. Moreover, it has been shown for many cell types that they undergo apoptosis after treatment with TBT and the cell death of immune cells could be the molecular background of its immunotoxic effect. As low as 200 nM up to 1 μM of TBT induces all signs of apoptosis in Jurkat T cells within 1 to 24 hrs of treatment. When compared to Fas-ligand control stimulation, the same sequence of events occurs: membrane blebbing, phosphatidylserine externalisation, the activation of the "death-inducing signalling complex," and the following sequence of cleavage processes. In genetically modified caspase-8-deficient Jurkat cells, the apoptotic effects are only slightly reduced, whereas, in FADD-negative Jurkat cells, the TBT effect is significantly diminished. We could show that caspase-10 is recruited by the TRAIL-R2 receptor and apoptosis is totally prevented when caspase-10 is specifically inhibited in all three cell lines.Journal of Toxicology 01/2012; 2012:395482. DOI:10.1155/2012/395482
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of flunarizine on cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Administration of cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p. on day 6) significantly increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, urinary N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase, tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total calcium whereas, decreased body weight, fractional excretion of sodium, creatinine clearance tissue-reduced glutathione, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, and ATP levels were observed in acute renal failure rats. Moreover, cisplatin produced histopathological changes in the renal tissue. Furthermore, flunarizine (100, 200, and 300 μM/kg, p.o., for six consecutive days) was administered to evaluate its therapeutic potential in acute renal failure, and the results were compared with cyclosporin A (50 μM/kg, p.o., for six consecutive days) as a reference drug. Flunarizine resulted in the attenuation of cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction, oxidative stress marker, mitochondrial damage, and histopathological changes in rats. Medium and higher doses of flunarizine produced significant renal protective effect which was comparable to cyclosporin A. The results of this study clearly revealed that flunarizine protected the kidney against the nephrotoxic effect of cisplatin via mitochondrial permeability transition pore inactivation potential.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 10/2010; 383(1):57-64. DOI:10.1007/s00210-010-0572-z · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Planar triazinium cationic species, from VO(2+)-assisted cyclization of 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol, shows efficient DNA intercalative binding, visible light-induced anaerobic plasmid DNA photocleavage activity and photocytotoxicity in HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells by an apoptotic pathway with selective localization of the compound in the nucleus as evidenced from the nuclear staining and confocal imaging.Chemical Communications 02/2011; 47(13):3954-6. DOI:10.1039/c0cc05386d · 6.72 Impact Factor