The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate artifact errors in automatic inner and outer retinal boundary detection produced by different time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments.
Normal and pathologic eyes were imaged by six different OCT devices. For each instrument, standard analysis protocols were used for macular thickness evaluation. Error frequencies, defined as the percentage of examinations affected by at least one error in retinal segmentation (EF-exam) and the percentage of total errors per total B-scans, were assessed for each instrument. In addition, inner versus outer retinal boundary delimitation and central (1,000 microm) versus noncentral location of errors were studied.
The study population of the EF-exam for all instruments was 25.8%. The EF-exam of normal eyes was 6.9%, whereas in all pathologic eyes, it was 32.7% (P < 0.0001). The EF-exam was highest in eyes with macular holes, 83.3%, followed by epiretinal membrane with cystoid macular edema, 66.6%, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, 50.3%. The different OCT instruments produced different EF-exam values (P < 0.0001). The Zeiss Stratus produced the highest percentage of total errors per total B-scans compared with the other OCT systems, and this was statistically significant for all devices (P < or = 0.005) except the Optovue RTvue-100 (P = 0.165).
Spectral-domain OCT instruments reduce, but do not eliminate, errors in retinal segmentation. Moreover, accurate segmentation is lower in pathologic eyes compared with normal eyes for all instruments. The important differences in EF among the instruments studied are probably attributable to analysis algorithms used to set retinal inner and outer boundaries. Manual adjustments of retinal segmentations could reduce errors, but it will be important to evaluate interoperator variability.
"The OCT data is automatically segmented in order to generate the above maps (Figure 2). When interpreting these maps, one should bear in mind that the artefacts may occur during segmentation, which will lead to improper retinal thickness measurements [10, 11]. Artefacts may arise as a result of poor image quality, eye movement during measurements, and retinal pathologies interfering with automated segmentation (e.g., retinal pigment epithelial detachment, subretinal fluid, fibrosis, or haemorrhage). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic maculopathy (DM) is one of the major causes of vision impairment in individuals with diabetes. The traditional approach to diagnosis of DM includes fundus ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography. Although very useful clinically, these methods do not contribute much to the evaluation of retinal morphology and its thickness profile. That is why a new technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to perform cross-sectional imaging of the retina. It facilitates measuring the macular thickening, quantification of diabetic macular oedema, and detecting vitreoretinal traction. Thus, OCT may assist in patient selection with DM who can benefit from treatment, identify what treatment is indicated, guide its implementing, and allow precise monitoring of treatment response. It seems to be the technique of choice for the early detection of macular oedema and for the followup of DM.
Mediators of Inflammation 11/2013; 2013(5):434560. DOI:10.1155/2013/434560 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"The segmentation algorithm of each machine determined the boundaries. When measuring CMT, the Cirrus HD-OCT measured from the internal limiting membrane to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), while the Spectralis HRA + OCT measured from the internal limiting membrane to Bruch's membrane by distinguishing the RPE from Bruch's membrane. The frequency and severity of segmentation errors were higher in the Spectralis HRA + OCT than in the Cirrus HD-OCT, mainly because the RPE remains more or less intact compared to Bruch's membrane, which is invaded and destroyed by CNV. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To evaluate frequency and severity of segmentation errors of two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices and error effect on central macular thickness (CMT) measurements.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, examined using the Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis HRA + OCT, were retrospectively reviewed. Macular cube 512 × 128 and 5-line raster scans were performed with the Cirrus and 512 × 25 volume scans with the Spectralis. Frequency and severity of segmentation errors were compared between scans.
Segmentation error frequency was 47.4% (baseline), 40.7% (1 month), 40.7% (2 months), and 48.1% (6 months) for the Cirrus, and 59.3%, 62.2%, 57.8%, and 63.7%, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly between devices at all examinations (P < 0.05), except at baseline. Average error score was 1.21 ± 1.65 (baseline), 0.79 ± 1.18 (1 month), 0.74 ± 1.12 (2 months), and 0.96 ± 1.11 (6 months) for the Cirrus, and 1.73 ± 1.50, 1.54 ± 1.35, 1.38 ± 1.40, and 1.49 ± 1.30, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly at 1 month and 2 months (P < 0.02). Automated and manual CMT measurements by the Spectralis were larger than those by the Cirrus.
The Cirrus HD-OCT had a lower frequency and severity of segmentation error than the Spectralis HRA + OCT. SD-OCT error should be considered when evaluating retinal thickness.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2013; 61(5). DOI:10.4103/0301-4738.97075 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot study investigated whether high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) could detect differences in inner retinal layer (IRL), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and macular thickness between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls.
Both eyes of patients with PD and age-matched controls were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis(®) HRA + OCT. RNFL, IRL, and macular thickness were measured for each eye using Heidelberg software. These measurements were compared with validated, published normal values for macular and RNFL thickness, and compared with matched controls for IRL thickness.
Eighteen eyes from nine subjects with PD and 19 eyes of 16 control subjects were evaluated using SD-OCT. The average age of PD patients was 64 years with a range of 52-75 years. The average age of controls was 67 years with a range of 50-81 years. No significant reduction in IRL thickness was detected between PD patients and age-matched controls at 13 points along a 6 mm horizontal section through the fovea. No significant difference in RNFL thickness was detected between PD patients and published normal values. Overall average RNFL thickness was 97 μm for PD patients, which exactly matched the normative database value. However, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields between PD subjects and published normal values. In PD subjects, the outer superior subfield was 2.8% thinner (P = 0.026), while the outer nasal and inner inferior subfields were 2.8% (P = 0.016) and 2.7% (P = 0.001) thicker compared to published normal values.
In this pilot study, significant differences in macular thickness were detected in three of nine subfields by SD-OCT. However, SD-OCT did not detect significant reductions in peripapillary RNFL and IRL thickness between PD patients and controls. This suggests that macular thickness measurements by SD-OCT may potentially be used as an objective, noninvasive, and easily quantifiable in vivo biomarker in PD. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to explore these relationships further.
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