The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

Department of Education, Faculty of Social and Behavior Science, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Sleep Medicine Reviews (Impact Factor: 9.14). 06/2010; 14(3):179-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Insufficient sleep, poor sleep quality and sleepiness are common problems in children and adolescents being related to learning, memory and school performance. The associations between sleep quality (k=16 studies, N=13,631), sleep duration (k=17 studies, N=15,199), sleepiness (k=17, N=19,530) and school performance were examined in three separate meta-analyses including influential factors (e.g., gender, age, parameter assessment) as moderators. All three sleep variables were significantly but modestly related to school performance. Sleepiness showed the strongest relation to school performance (r=-0.133), followed by sleep quality (r=0.096) and sleep duration (r=0.069). Effect sizes were larger for studies including younger participants which can be explained by dramatic prefrontal cortex changes during (early) adolescence. Concerning the relationship between sleep duration and school performance age effects were even larger in studies that included more boys than in studies that included more girls, demonstrating the importance of differential pubertal development of boys and girls. Longitudinal and experimental studies are recommended in order to gain more insight into the different relationships and to develop programs that can improve school performance by changing individuals' sleep patterns.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in sleep patterns and increased substance involvement are common in adolescence, but our knowledge of the nature of their association remains limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between several sleep problems and sleep behaviours, and use and misuse of alcohol and illicit drugs using data from a large population-based sample. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland study, surveyed 9328 adolescents aged 16-19 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep deficit, weekday bedtime and bedtime difference and insomnia. The main dependent variables were frequency and amount of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, in addition to the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. The results showed that all sleep parameters were associated with substance involvement in a dose-response manner. Short sleep duration, sleep deficit, large bedtime differences and insomnia were all significantly associated with higher odds of all alcohol and drug use/misuse measures. The associations were only partly attenuated by sociodemographics factors and co-existing symptoms of depression and ADHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to examine the association between sleep, and alcohol and drug use, by employing detailed measures of sleep behaviour and problems, as well as validated measures on consumption of alcohol and illicit drug use. The findings call for increased awareness of the link between sleep problems and alcohol and drugs use/misuse as a major public health issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.045 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. Methods: A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12–19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7–8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Results: Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P < 0.001), compared to adolescents without self-reported sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7–8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that reports of sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established.
    Sleep Medicine 02/2015; 16:87–93. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.09.004 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine sleep-duration-related risk factors from multidimensional domains among Chinese adolescents. Methods A random sample of 4801 adolescents aged 11–20 years participated in a cross-sectional survey. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect information about adolescents' sleep behaviors and possible related factors from eight domains. Results In all, 51.0% and 9.8% of adolescents did not achieve optimal sleep duration (defined as <8.0 h per day) on weekdays and on weekends, respectively. According to multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for all possible confounders, 17 factors were associated with sleep duration <8 h. Specifically, 13 factors from five domains were linked to physical and psychosocial condition, environment, and behaviors. These factors were overweight/obesity, chronic pain, bedtime anxiety/excitement/depression, bed/room sharing, school starting time earlier than 07:00, cram school learning, more time spent on homework on weekdays, television viewing ≥2 h/day, physical activity <1 h/day, irregular bedtime, and shorter sleep duration of father. Conclusion Biological and psychosocial conditions, sleep environments, school schedules, daily activity and behaviors, and parents' sleep habits significantly affect adolescents' sleep duration, indicating that the existing chronic sleep loss in adolescents could be, at least partly, intervened by improving adolescents' physical and psychosocial conditions, by controlling visual screen exposure, by regulating school schedules, by improving sleep hygiene and daytime behaviors, and by changing parents' sleep habits.
    Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 15(11). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.05.018 · 3.10 Impact Factor