Massage therapy for people with HIV/AIDS
ABSTRACT Infection with human immunodeficency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficency syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic that has affected millions of people globally. Although major research and clinical initiatives are addressing prevention and cure strategies, issues of quality of life for survivors have received less attention. Massage therapy is proposed to have a positive effect on quality of life and may also have a positive effect on immune function through stress mediation.
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the safety and effectiveness of massage therapy on quality of life, pain and immune system parameters in people living with HIV/AIDS.
A comprehensive search strategy was devised incorporating appropriate terms for HIV/AIDS, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), massage therapy and the pertinent measures of benefit. All electronic databases identified were searched in November 2008, including Cochrane Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIENCE CITATION INDEX, AIDSLINE, AIDSearch, CINAHL, HEALTHSTAR, PsycLIT, AMED, Current Contents, AMI, NLM GATEWAY, LILACS, IndMed, SOCIOFILE, SCI, SSCI, ERIC and DAI. We also reviewed relevant published and unpublished conference abstracts and proceedings and scrutinised reference lists from pertinent journals. There were no language or date restrictions.
Studies were identified by two reviewers based on trial design (RCTs) and participants (ie, people of any age with HIV/AIDS, at any stage of the disease) who had undergone an intervention that included massage therapy for the identified aims of improving quality of life and activity and participation levels, improving immune function, reducing pain and improving other physiological or psychological impairments.
Two reviewers independently identified included studies and extracted relevant data. Two other reviewers independently reviewed the included studies for risk of bias. All data and risk of bias judgements were entered into Revman (v5) and meta-analyses were conducted where appropriate.
Twelve papers were identified, from which four were included. The remaining eight papers were excluded predominantly due to inappropriate methodology. The four included studies were highly clinically heterogenous, investigating a range of age groups (ie, children, adolescents and adults) across the disease spectrum from early HIV through late-stage AIDS. The settings were either community or palliative care, and the outcome measures were a combination of quality of life and immunological function. The trials were judged to be at moderate risk of bias mostly because of incomplete reporting. For quality of life measures, the studies reported that massage therapy in combination with other modalities, such as meditation and stress reduction, are superior to massage therapy alone or to the other modalities alone. The quality of life domains with significant effect sizes included self-reported reduced use of health care resources, improvement in self-perceived spiritual quality of life and improvement in total quality of life scores. One study also reported positive changes in immune function, in particular CD4+ cell count and natural killer cell counts, due to massage therapy, and one study reported no difference between people given massage therapy and controls in immune parameters. Adverse or harmful effects were not well reported.
There is some evidence to support the use of massage therapy to improve quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in combination with other stress-management modalities, and that massage therapy may have a positive effect on immunological function. The trials are small, however, and at moderate risk of bias. Further studies are needed using larger sample sizes and rigorous design/reporting before massage therapy can be strongly recommended for PLWHA.
SourceAvailable from: Shanoo Suroowan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract With more than 34 million of infected individuals, the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a perturbing pandemic that has been projected to one of the most serious significant public health concerns. Nonetheless, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) related morbidity and mortality. Although the quality of life of those infected has been improved, patients continue to experience physical and emotional discomforts due to the infection and/or co-infection and related treatment. The weak success of conventional biomedicine to find an effective cure for this infection has enticed patients to seek relief through the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) though this means accepting certain levels of uncertainty in the hope to alleviate their suffering. Despite the widespread use of CAM, little is known about the characteristics of HIV-infected CAM users. Based on the lacuna of high-quality data reporting the use of CAM among HIV/AIDS patients, reviewing CAM use in patients on and off antiretroviral medications (ARV) is an essential baseline step to address challenges surrounding the use, safety and efficacy of CAM therapies. It therefore remains to the clinicians' obligation to inquire about CAM use when assessing, treating, and monitoring patients to ensure the effective use of CAM alongside preventing drug toxicity, treatment failure and ARV resistance. The present review has endeavoured to explore and provide updated information on the potential of common CAM therapies that have been shown to have positive health benefits in HIV/AIDS patients.
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ABSTRACT: Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used throughout the world in treatment, disease prevention, and health promotion. However, the mechanisms by which MBTs exert their positive effects are not well understood. Investigations into MBTs using functional genomics have revolutionized the understanding of MBT mechanisms and their effects on human physiology. We searched the literature for the effects of MBTs on functional genomics determinants using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of additional journals and a reference list review. We reviewed 15 trials that measured global or targeted transcriptomic, epigenomic, or proteomic changes in peripheral blood. Sample sizes ranged from small pilot studies (n=2) to large trials (n=500). While the reliability of individual genes from trial to trial was often inconsistent, genes related to inflammatory response, particularly those involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, were consistently downregulated across most studies. In general, existing trials focusing on gene expression changes brought about by MBTs have revealed intriguing connections to the immune system through the NF-κB cascade, to telomere maintenance, and to apoptotic regulation. However, these findings are limited to a small number of trials and relatively small sample sizes. More rigorous randomized controlled trials of healthy subjects and specific disease states are warranted. Future research should investigate functional genomics areas both upstream and downstream of MBT-related gene expression changes-from epigenomics to proteomics and metabolomics.Ochsner Journal 01/2014; 14(4):681-95.
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ABSTRACT: To present a case study of complementary therapy (CT) provision within a community HIV multi-agency service in a Northwest London deprived area. Anonymised routine service data were provided for all clients (n = 1030) August 2010 to October 2012. Face-to-face meetings provided feedback from volunteers (9 CT-using clients and 9 staff). CT-users were demographically similar to other clients. Support for coping with HIV was commonly cited as a service benefit. Over 26 months 1416 CT sessions were provided; 875 aromatherapy and 471 shiatsu. CT-users' most common concerns were pain (48%), stress (15%) and insomnia (13%), few had heard of or used CT before. Perceived mental and emotional benefits included relaxation,stress relief, relieving musculoskeletal aches and pains. Service challenges included time and funding, though staff felt CT may be cost-effective. CT may provide important support and treatment options for HIV disease, but cost effectiveness requires further evaluation.Complementary therapies in clinical practice 02/2014; 20(1):65-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2013.10.003