Socio-economic differences in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and berries in Russian and Finnish Karelia: 1992-2007
ABSTRACT Food habits and their socio-economic differences in Russia have rarely been compared to those in western countries. Our aim was to determine socio-economic differences and their changes in the consumption of vegetables, fruit and berries in two neighbouring areas: the district of Pitkäranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, and North Karelia, Finland.
Cross-sectional risk factor surveys in Pitkäranta, in 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 (1144 men, 1528 women) and in North Karelia, in 1992, 1997 and 2002 (2049 men, 2316 women), were carried out. Data collected with a self-administered questionnaire were analysed with logistic regression.
The consumption of fruit and vegetables was more common in North Karelia than in Pitkäranta, but increased markedly in Pitkäranta from 1992 to 2007. In Pitkäranta, women, and in North Karelia both men and women with higher education ate fresh vegetables more often than those with a lower education. In both areas, daily consumption of fruit tended to be more common among subjects with a higher education. In Pitkäranta, there were virtually no differences by employment status. In North Karelia, vegetable consumption was less common among the unemployed than the employed subjects. Only minor socio-economic differences in berry consumption were observed. The educational differences in vegetable consumption seemed to widen in Pitkäranta and narrow in North Karelia.
A converging trend was observed, with the Russian consumption levels and socio-economic differences starting to approach those observed in Finland. This may be partly explained by the improvements in availability and affordability of fruit and vegetables in Pitkäranta.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate daily fruit and vegetable intakes and to investigate socio-economic and behavioural differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among urban Moroccan women.Design A cross-sectional survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was measured with a single 24 h recall.Settings A representative population-based survey conducted in the area of Rabat-Salé.Subjects Women (n 894) of child-bearing age (20-49 years).Results Mean fruit and vegetable intake was 331 g/d (155 g/d for fruit and 176 g/d for vegetables). Only one-third (32·1 %) of women consumed ≥400 g/d and half the sample (50·6 %) were considered as low consumers, i.e. <280 g/d. Women of higher economic status ate significantly more fruit (P<0·05) and more fruit and vegetables combined (P<0·05). Women ate significantly less vegetables if they ate out of home more often or skipped at least one main meal (breakfast, lunch or dinner) or ate more processed foods (P<0·05, P<0·01 and P<0·001, respectively). Fruit and vegetable diversity was not associated with any of the factors investigated.Conclusions In this population, fruit and vegetable intakes are driven by different determinants. Indeed, while vegetable consumption was related only to behavioural determinants, fruit consumption was influenced only by economic status. Therefore, programmes promoting fruit and vegetable intake would be more effective if they account for these specific determinants in their design.Public Health Nutrition 08/2014; 18(05):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1368980014001761 · 2.48 Impact Factor
Journal of Integrative Agriculture 07/2015; · 0.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) proposes to collect performance indicators on food policies, actions and environments related to obesity and non-communicable diseases. This paper reviews existing communications strategies used for performance indicators and proposes the approach to be taken for INFORMAS. Twenty-seven scoring and rating tools were identified in various fields of public health including alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, infant feeding and food environments. These were compared based on the types of indicators used and how they were quantified, scoring methods, presentation and the communication and reporting strategies used. There are several implications of these analyses for INFORMAS: the ratings/benchmarking approach is very commonly used, presumably because it is an effective way to communicate progress and stimulate action, although this has not been formally evaluated; the tools used must be trustworthy, pragmatic and policy-relevant; multiple channels of communication will be needed; communications need to be tailored and targeted to decision-makers; data and methods should be freely accessible. The proposed communications strategy for INFORMAS has been built around these lessons to ensure that INFORMAS's outputs have the greatest chance of being used to improve food environments.Obesity Reviews 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/obr.12072 · 7.86 Impact Factor