Characterization of hydrogen peroxide production by Duox in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda 20852, USA.
FEBS letters (Impact Factor: 3.34). 03/2010; 584(5):917-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2010.01.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hydrogen peroxide production by the NADPH oxidase Duox1 occurs during activation of respiratory epithelial cells stimulated by purified bacterial ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide. Here, we characterize Duox activation using intact bacterial cells of several airway pathogens. We found that only Pseudomonas aeruginosa, not Burkholderia cepacia or Staphylococcus aureus, triggers H2O2 production in bronchial epithelial cells in a calcium-dependent but predominantly ATP-independent manner. Moreover, by comparing mutant Pseudomonas strains, we identify several virulence factors that participate in Duox activation, including the type-three secretion system. These data provide insight on Duox activation by mechanisms unique to P. aeruginosa.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: Influenza A virus (IAV), a major airborne pathogen, is closely associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The primary target for influenza virus replication is the respiratory epithelium, which reacts to infection by mounting a multifaceted antiviral response. A part of this mucosal host defense is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases. Duox1 and Duox2 are the main ROS-producing enzymes in the airway epithelium, but their contribution to mammalian host defense is still ill defined. Results: To gain a better understanding of Duox function in respiratory tract infections, human differentiated lung epithelial cells and an animal model were used to monitor the effect of epithelial ROS on IAV propagation. IAV infection led to coordinated up-regulation of Duox2 and Duox-mediated ROS generation. Interference with H2O2 production and ROS signaling by oxidase inhibition or H2O2 decomposition augmented IAV replication. A nuclear pool of Duox enzymes participated in the regulation of the spliceosome, which is critical for alternative splicing of viral transcripts and controls the assembly of viable virions. In vivo silencing of Duox increased the viral load on intranasal infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Innovation: This is the first study conclusively linking Duox NADPH oxidases with the antiviral mammalian immune response. Further, ROS generated by Duox enzymes localized adjacent to nuclear speckles altered the splicing of viral genes. Conclusion: Duox-derived ROS are host protective and essential for counteracting IAV replication. Antioxid. Redox signal. 00, 000-000.
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