Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Raltegravir Combined with Optimized Background Therapy in Treatment-Experienced Patients with Drug-Resistant HIV Infection: Week 96 Results of the BENCHMRK 1 and 2 Phase III Trials

State University of New York at Stony Brook, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 02/2010; 50(4):605-12. DOI: 10.1086/650002
Source: PubMed


BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. At week 96 (combined data), raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) plus optimized background therapy was generally well tolerated, with superior and durable antiretroviral and immunological efficacy, compared with optimized background therapy alone. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

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    • "Twice-daily dosing could be a disadvantage when compared with the once-daily option. In addition, raltegravir has a relatively low genetic barrier to resistance, as shown by the relatively rapid onset of raltegravir-associated mutations in the setting of virologic failure.14,15 "
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    ABSTRACT: The viral integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block HIV-1 replication, and integrase inhibitors are considered a pivotal new class of antiretroviral drugs. Dolutegravir is an investigational next-generation integrase inhibitor showing some novel and intriguing characteristics, ie, it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular half-life, rendering feasible once-daily dosing without the need for ritonavir boosting and without regard to meals. Moreover, dolutegravir is primarily metabolized via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltranferase 1A1, with a minor component of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform, thereby limiting drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, its metabolic profile enables coadministration with most of the other available antiretroviral agents without dose adjustment. Recent findings also demonstrate that dolutegravir has significant activity against HIV-1 isolates with resistance mutations associated with raltegravir and/or elvitegravir. The attributes of once-daily administration and the potential to treat integrase inhibitor-resistant viruses make dolutegravir an interesting and promising investigational drug. In this review, the main concerns about the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir as well as its resistance profile are explored by analysis of currently available data from preclinical and clinical studies.
    HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 02/2013; 5:29-40. DOI:10.2147/HIV.S27765
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    • "In the BENCHMRK 1 and 2 trials comparing raltegravir (n = 459) to placebo (n = 237) in patients experiencing therapy failure, superior and sustained viral suppression was observed up to 96 weeks (mITT, 24 weeks: 62% versus 33% virological suppression, p<0.001) [2], [35]. The majority of virus isolates of the raltegravir failure patients harbored integrase resistance mutations, most of which were already detected by 24 weeks of therapy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal regimen choice of antiretroviral therapy is essential to achieve long-term clinical success. Integrase inhibitors have swiftly been adopted as part of current antiretroviral regimens. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence for integrase inhibitor use in clinical settings. MEDLINE and Web-of-Science were screened from April 2006 until November 2012, as were hand-searched scientific meeting proceedings. Multiple reviewers independently screened 1323 citations in duplicate to identify randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials and cohort studies on integrase inhibitor use in clinical practice. Independent, duplicate data extraction and quality assessment were conducted. 48 unique studies were included on the use of integrase inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients and treatment-experienced patients with either virological failure or switching to integrase inhibitors while virologically suppressed. On the selected studies with comparable outcome measures and indication (n = 16), a meta-analysis was performed based on modified intention-to-treat (mITT), on-treatment (OT) and as-treated (AT) virological outcome data. In therapy-naive patients, favorable odds ratios (OR) for integrase inhibitor-based regimens were observed, (mITT OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86). However, integrase inhibitors combined with protease inhibitors only did not result in a significant better virological outcome. Evidence further supported integrase inhibitor use following virological failure (mITT OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-0.66), but switching to integrase inhibitors from a high genetic barrier drug during successful treatment was not supported (mITT OR 1.43; 95% CI 0.89-2.31). Integrase inhibitor-based regimens result in similar immunological responses compared to other regimens. A low genetic barrier to drug-resistance development was observed for raltegravir and elvitegravir, but not for dolutegravir. In first-line therapy, integrase inhibitors are superior to other regimens. Integrase inhibitor use after virological failure is supported as well by the meta-analysis. Careful use is however warranted when replacing a high genetic barrier drug in treatment-experienced patients switching successful treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52562. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052562 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (INI) are a relatively new class of antiretroviral (ARV) medications that function by preventing strand displacement and integration of the HIV-1 provirus into the host cell genome [1]. Raltegravir (RAL) was the first US FDA approved INI, and has demonstrated significant antiviral activity in ARV experienced and naïve patients when combined with other ARV classes [2], [3]. Elvitegravir (EVG) and dolutegravir (DTG) are INIs in clinical development and demonstrate comparable virologic activity in clinical trials [4]–[7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Failure of antiretroviral regimens containing elvitegravir (EVG) and raltegravir (RAL) can result in the appearance of integrase inhibitor (INI) drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). While several INI DRMs have been identified, the evolution of EVG DRMs and the linkage of these DRMs with protease inhibitor (PI) and reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) DRMs have not been studied at the clonal level. We examined the development of INI DRMs in 10 patients failing EVG-containing regimens over time, and the linkage of INI DRMs with PI and RTI DRMs in these patients plus 6 RAL-treated patients. A one-step RT-nested PCR protocol was used to generate a 2.7 kB amplicon that included the PR, RT, and IN coding region, and standard cloning and sequencing techniques were used to determine DRMs in 1,277 clones (mean 21 clones per time point). Results showed all patients had multiple PI, NRTI, and/or NNRTI DRMs at baseline, but no primary INI DRM. EVG-treated patients developed from 2 to 6 strains with different primary INI DRMs as early as 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, predominantly as single mutations. The prevalence of these strains fluctuated and new strains, and/or strains with new combinations of INI DRMs, developed over time. Final failure samples (weeks 14 to 48) typically showed a dominant strain with multiple mutations or N155H alone. Single N155H or multiple mutations were also observed in RAL-treated patients at virologic failure. All patient strains showed evidence of INI DRM co-located with single or multiple PI and/or RTI DRMs on the same viral strand. Our study shows that EVG treatment can select for a number of distinct INI-resistant strains whose prevalence fluctuates over time. Continued appearance of new INI DRMs after initial INI failure suggests a potent, highly dynamic selection of INI resistant strains that is unaffected by co-location with PI and RTI DRMs.
    PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40514. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040514 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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