Transmission of HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Variants: Prevalence and Effect on Treatment Outcome
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is an important threat to the overall success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Because of the limited sensitivity of commercial assays, transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may be underestimated; thus, the effect that TDR has on treatment outcome needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of TDR in HIV-infected patients and to evaluate the significance of TDR with respect to treatment outcome by analyzing plasma viral RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proviral DNA for the presence of drug resistance mutations.
In a prospective study, we investigated the level of TDR in 61 patients by comparing the results of a sensitive multiplex-primer-extension approach (termed HIV-SNaPshot) that is capable of screening for 9 common nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor and nonnucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitor mutations with those of a commercial genotyping kit, ViroSeq (Abbott).
Twenty-two patients were found to carry mutations. More patients with TDR were identified by the HIV-SNaPshot assay than by ViroSeq analysis (33% vs 13%; [P=.015). There was no significant difference in the time from initiation of ART to virological suppression between susceptible patients and those carrying low- or high-level resistance mutations (mean +/- standard deviation, 128 +/- 59.1 vs 164.9 +/- 120.4; P=.147). Furthermore, analyses of CD4 cell counts showed no significant difference between these 2 groups 1 year after the initiation of ART (mean, 184 vs 219 cells/microL; P=.267).
We found the prevalence of TDR in recently infected ART-naive patients to be higher than that estimated by ViroSeq genotyping alone. Follow-up of patients after treatment initiation showed a trend toward there being more clinical complications for patients carrying TDR, although a significant effect on treatment outcome could not be demonstrated. Therefore, the clinical relevance of low-abundance resistant quasispecies in early infection is still in question.
SourceAvailable from: Birgitte B Simen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Low-frequency HIV variants possessing resistance mutations against non‑nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), especially at HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) amino acid (aa) positions K103 and Y181, have been shown to adversely affect treatment response. Therapeutic failure correlates with both the mutant viral variant frequency and the mutational load. We determined the prevalence of NNRTI resistance mutations at several RT aa positions in viruses from 204 antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve HIV-infected individuals using deep sequencing, and examined the relationship between mutant variant frequency and mutational load for those variants. Deep sequencing to ≥0.4% levels found variants with major NNRTI-resistance mutations having a Stanford-HIVdb algorithm value ≥30 for efavirenz and/or nevirapine in 52/204 (25.5%) ARV-naïve HIV-infected persons. Eighteen different major NNRTI mutations were identified at 11 different positions, with the majority of variants being at frequency >1%. The frequency of these variants correlated strongly with the mutational load, but this correlation weakened at low frequencies. Deep sequencing detected additional major NNRTI-resistant viral variants in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals. Our study suggests the significance of screening for mutations at all RT aa positions (in addition to K103 and Y181) to estimate the true burden of pre-treatment NNRTI-resistance. An important finding was that variants at low frequency had a wide range of mutational loads (>100-fold) suggesting that frequency alone may underestimate the impact of specific NNRTI-resistant variants. We recommend further evaluation of all low-frequency NNRTI-drug resistant variants with special attention given to the impact of mutational loads of these variants on treatment outcomes.Viruses 09/2014; 6(9):3428-3437. DOI:10.3390/v6093428 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Methods: Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Results: Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. Conclusions: The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112674. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112674 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A macrocycle provides diverse functionality and stereochemical complexity in a conformationally preorganized ring structure, and it occupies a unique chemical space in drug discovery. However, the synthetic challenge to access this structural class is high and hinders the exploration of macrocycles. In this study, efficient synthetic routes to macrocyclized betulin derivatives have been established. The macrocycle containing compounds showed equal potency compared to bevirimat in multiple HIV-1 antiviral assays. The synthesis and biological evaluation of this novel series of HIV-1 maturation inhibitors will be discussed.The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal 09/2014; 8(1):23-7. DOI:10.2174/1874104501408010023
Martin R Jakobsen