IP over reconfigurable optical network architectures have been extensively discussed within the research literature over the past few years. However, although reconfigurable optical networks have been deployed and signaling protocols between IP routers and optical networks have been standardized, large IP backbones are typically deployed using the reconfigurable optical networks. One of the most important criteria in determining whether an IP backbone should be carried over a reconfigurable optical network is economic viability - which necessitates a detailed, accurate economic study of IP backbone over reconfigurable optical network architectures. In this paper, we analyze and explore four IP over optical network architectures for a typical large ISP backbone. In contrast with other published claims, our results suggest that an IP over opaque reconfigurable optical network architecture is not economically attractive with current equipment and IP backbone network design requirements. However, for ISPs also carrying large volumes of transport network private line services, our proposed integrated IP over re-configurable optical network architecture may provide an attractive alternative for providing rapid, cost effective failure recovery.
"These drawbacks can be addressed by using a distributed management system and by making the architecture more immune against failures. In order to make optical part of the network immune against failures we can use idea of the reliable optical network solution was proposed in . This architecture is known as the Dual-Router Architecture. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration between Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a promising solution for next generation access networks. In this paper, we devise a new architecture framework for EPON-WiMAX hybrid networks that is more reliable and extend the service coverage range. In addition, we propose a new bandwidth allocation algorithm for the proposed architecture that provides per-stream QoS protection, bandwidth guarantee for real-time flows and improves the overall system performance. Through intensive simulations, we show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture and bandwidth allocation algorithm.
Proceedings of the Global Communications Conference, 2010. GLOBECOM 2010, 6-10 December 2010, Miami, Florida, USA; 12/2010
"Programmable transport layers: Programmable transport technologies  enable dynamic reconfiguration of the links that interconnect routers. Reconfigurable transport systems capable of reconfiguring long-haul links are commercially available  and the theoretic possibility of sub-nano second switching times have been reported . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Network management is the proverbial "elephant in the room"—the pressing problem we all know is plaguing the Internet, yet seems intractable to solve. Each new man-agement challenge leads to a new point solution, such as a new configuration script, measurement tool, or protocol extension. In this paper, we argue that many network-management problems stem from the same root cause— the need to maintain consistency between the physical and logical configuration of routers. Instead, we believe that future networks should break this tight coupling by al-lowing (virtual) routers to freely move from one physical node to another, without changing the IP-layer topology. Our VROOM (Virtual ROuters On the Move) architecture supports live virtual router migration and re-mapping of virtual links, by capitalizing on recent innovations in pro-grammable transport networks, packet-aware access net-works, virtual server migration and virtual router tech-nologies. Preliminary experiments with a simple proto-type, built using Xen and the Linux routing software, show that VROOM is feasible in practice. We believe that vir-tual router migration will simplify a variety of network-management tasks, including planned maintenance, ser-vice deployment, and minimizing power consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As service providers move more applications to their IP/MPLS (multiple protocol label switching ) backbone networks, rapid restoration upon failure becomes more and more crucial. Recently MPLS fast reroute has attracted lots of attention as it was designed to meet the needs of real-time applications, such as voice over IP. MPLS fast reroute achieves rapid restoration by computing and signaling backup label switched path (LSP) tunnels in advance and re-directing traffic as close to failure point as possible. To provide a guarantee of bandwidth protection, extra bandwidth has to be reserved on backup paths. Using path merging technique as described in IETF RFC 4090 only, the network is able to share some bandwidth on common links among backup paths of the same service LSP, i.e., so-called intra-sharing. But no solution is provided on how to share bandwidth among backup paths of different service LSPs, i.e., so-called inter-sharing. In this paper, we provide an efficient distributed bandwidth management solution. This solution allows bandwidth sharing among backup paths of the same and different service LSPs, i.e., both intra-sharing and inter-sharing, with a guarantee of bandwidth protection for any single node/link failure. We also propose an efficient algorithm for backup path selection with the associated signaling extensions for additional information distribution and collection. To evaluate our schemes, we compare them via simulation with the basic MPLS fast reroute proposal, IETF RFC 4090, on two networks. Our simulation results show that using our bandwidth management scheme can significantly reduce restoration overbuild from about 250% to about 100%, and our optimized backup path selection can further reduce restoration overbuild to about 60%.
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