Preventing tuberculosis in children receiving anti-TNF treatment.
ABSTRACT Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment has been a breakthrough in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, they are associated with a significant risk of tuberculosis. We evaluated JIA patients who received etanercept treatment from an eastern Mediterranean country with moderate tuberculosis frequency. JIA patients under anti-TNF treatment, etanercept, were enrolled to the study. Chest X-rays, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), clinical histories, family screening, and physical examinations were reviewed retrospectively. If TST was above 10 mm in a patient with one Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, cultures and, if needed, thorax computerized tomography were obtained. These patients received 1-2 months of isoniazid (INH) treatment which was followed by an INH prophylaxis for a period of 9 months while etanercept treatment was started. All were re-evaluated within 3 months intervals. A total of 36 patients under etanercept treatment were enrolled to the study. Mean age of the patients was 14.00 years (range 4-22 years). Median duration of disease was 36.00 months (range 4-216 months). Median duration of etanercept therapy was 11.5 months (3-48 months) at final evaluation. Seven patients had an initial TST score above 10 mm. All received INH treatment as outlined above. They had normal examinations and X-rays during followup. With proper initial evaluation, anti-TNF treatment is safe even in countries where tuberculosis is moderately frequent. An initial 1-2 months of INH treatment followed by chemoprophylaxis for 9 months is suggested for children with a TST of >10 mm.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The author discusses the benefits of using structured programming, sequential function charts, and structured text as an alternative or supplement to the ladder logic traditionally used for programming of programmable controllers with regard to the pending IEC SC65A/B standard (soon to become IEC 1131). The aim is to identify the programmable controller applications where the methodologies can be applied and consider effective strategies for applying programmable controllers.< >Electrical Engineering Problems in the Rubber and Plastics Industries, 1992., IEEE Conference Record of 1992 Forty-Fourth Annual Conference of; 05/1992
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection and evaluate the follow-up protocol of the patients diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and other chronic rheumatologic diseases treated with anti-TNF-α treatment (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab) in Turkey, 144 patients were evaluated retrospectively for the development of tuberculosis. Patients were evaluated every 6 months for tuberculosis using history, physical examination, tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiographs, and, when required, examination of sputum/early morning gastric aspirates for acid-fast bacilli and chest tomography. A tuberculin skin test over 10 mm induration was interpreted as positive. Patients were diagnosed with JIA (n = 132), enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA; n = 14), juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA; n = 4), chronic idiopathic uveitis (n = 4), and chronic arthritis related to FMF (n = 8). Mean age was 12.25 ± 3.96 years (4.08-19.41 years), mean duration of illness was 5.86 ± 3.77 years (0.66-15 years), and the mean duration of anti-TNF-α treatment was 2.41 ± 1.47 years (0.6-7 years). Anti-TNF-α agents prescribed were etanercept (n = 133), infliximab (n = 30), and adalimumab (n = 6). When unresponsive to one anti-TNF-α therapy, patients were switched to another. There was no history of contact with individuals having tuberculosis. During follow-up, seven patients (4.8%) with positive TST were given INH prophylaxis. One oligoarticular JIA patient (0.69%) diagnosed with secondary uveitis who had been followed for 5 years and had been using infliximab for 2 years, developed a positive Quantiferon-TB test while on INH prophylaxis. He was started on an anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. In conclusion, anti-TNF-α treatment in children with chronic inflammatory disease is safe. Follow-up every 6 months of children on anti-TNF-α treatment with respect to tuberculosis by the pediatric infectious disease department is important to prevent possible complications.Rheumatology International 07/2011; 32(9):2675-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor