Preventing tuberculosis in children receiving anti-TNF treatment.
ABSTRACT Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment has been a breakthrough in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, they are associated with a significant risk of tuberculosis. We evaluated JIA patients who received etanercept treatment from an eastern Mediterranean country with moderate tuberculosis frequency. JIA patients under anti-TNF treatment, etanercept, were enrolled to the study. Chest X-rays, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), clinical histories, family screening, and physical examinations were reviewed retrospectively. If TST was above 10 mm in a patient with one Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, cultures and, if needed, thorax computerized tomography were obtained. These patients received 1-2 months of isoniazid (INH) treatment which was followed by an INH prophylaxis for a period of 9 months while etanercept treatment was started. All were re-evaluated within 3 months intervals. A total of 36 patients under etanercept treatment were enrolled to the study. Mean age of the patients was 14.00 years (range 4-22 years). Median duration of disease was 36.00 months (range 4-216 months). Median duration of etanercept therapy was 11.5 months (3-48 months) at final evaluation. Seven patients had an initial TST score above 10 mm. All received INH treatment as outlined above. They had normal examinations and X-rays during followup. With proper initial evaluation, anti-TNF treatment is safe even in countries where tuberculosis is moderately frequent. An initial 1-2 months of INH treatment followed by chemoprophylaxis for 9 months is suggested for children with a TST of >10 mm.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies with infliximab indicate the therapeutic potential of tumour necrosis factor alpha blockade in spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Because defective host defence is implicated in the pathogenesis of SpA, the potential side effects of this treatment due to impact on the antimicrobial defence are a major concern. To report systematically the adverse events seen in a large cohort of patients with SpA treated with infliximab, with special attention to bacterial infections. 107 patients with SpA were treated with infliximab for a total of 191.5 patient years. All serious and/or treatment related adverse events were reported. Eight severe infections occurred, including two reactivations of tuberculosis and three retropharyngeal abscesses, and six minor infections with clear bacterial focus. One patient developed a spinocellular carcinoma of the skin. No cases of demyelinating disease or lupus-like syndrome were seen. Two patients had an infusion reaction, which, however, did not relapse during the next infusion. Finally, three patients with ankylosing spondylitis developed palmoplantar pustulosis. All patients recovered completely with adequate treatment, and infliximab treatment had to be stopped in only five patients with severe infections. Although the global safety of infliximab in SpA is good compared with previous reports in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, the occurrence of infections such as tuberculosis and retropharyngeal abscesses highlights the importance of careful screening and follow up. Focal nasopharyngeal infections and infection related symptoms, possibly induced by streptococci, occurred frequently, suggesting an impairment of specific host defence mechanisms in SpA.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 10/2003; 62(9):829-34. · 9.11 Impact Factor
- Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 44(4):619-20; author reply 620-1. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine trends in the incidence and prevalence of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in Rochester, Minnesota, over 33 years. The diagnostic retrieval system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was utilized to screen medical records of all Rochester residents with any potential diagnoses of JRA from 1978 to 1993 (based on the American College of Rheumatology 1977 revised criteria). In addition, all cases of JRA from our previously identified cohort from 1960-1979 were verified, and the 2 data sets were combined, resulting in an incidence cohort spanning 33 years (1960-1993). Of the 1,240 medical records screened, we identified 65 cases of JRA diagnosed between 1960 and 1993 (48 females, 17 males). The average followup for cases was 12.7 years (range 0-34 years) for a total of 833 person-years of observation. A bimodal distribution of age at diagnosis was observed, with peaks between 0 and 4 years and 9 and 15 years. Seventy-two percent of patients had pauciarticular-onset, 17% had polyarticular-onset, and 11% had systemic-onset disease. Progression of pauciarticular to polyarticular disease occurred in 11% of the cases. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 11.7 per 100,000 population (95% confidence intervals 8.7, 14.8). The incidence rate per 100,000 population was 15.0, 14.1, and 7.8 for the time periods 1960-1969, 1970-1979, and 1980-1993, respectively (P = 0.024). A 3-year, centered, moving average, which was used to display time trends in incidence, suggested a cyclical pattern, with incidence peaks in 1967, 1975, and 1987. An overall decrease in the incidence rate over the last decade was observed, most marked in the pauciarticular- and systemic-onset subtypes. This decrease, along with the observed cyclical pattern, suggest that environmental factors may influence disease frequency.Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/1996; 39(8):1385-90. · 7.48 Impact Factor