MicroRNAs in ovarian cancer biology and therapy resistance.
ABSTRACT Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological malignancies in the Western world. The overall 5-year survival is only 30% due to late diagnosis and development of resistance to chemotherapy. There is, therefore, a strong need for prognostic and predictive markers to help optimize and personalize treatment hence ameliorating the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Since 2006, an increasing number of studies have indicated an essential role for microRNAs in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an overview of the microRNAs that have been associated with different aspects of ovarian cancer, such as tumor subtype, stage, histological grade, germline mutations in BRCA genes, prognosis and therapy resistance. We highlight the role of the let-7 and miR-200 families, two major microRNA families that are frequently dysregulated in ovarian cancer and have been associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly, both have been implicated in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a cellular transition associated with tumor aggressiveness, tumor invasion and chemoresistance. Furthermore, we discuss several other microRNAs that have been associated with chemotherapy resistance, such as miR-214, miR-130a, miR-27a and miR-451. In the final section, we speculate on the possibilities of microRNA-based therapies and the use of microRNAs as diagnostic tools.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian Cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among women. Over 70% of women with OC are diagnosed in advanced stages and most of these cases are incurable. Although most patients respond well to primary chemotherapy, tumors become resistant to treatment. Mechanisms of chemoresistance in cancer cells may be associated with mutational events and/or alterations of gene expression through epigenetic events. Although focusing on known genes has already yielded new information, previously unknown non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), also lead insight into the biology of chemoresistance. In this review we summarize the current evidence examining the role of miRNAs as biomarkers of response and survival to therapy in OC. Beside their clinical implications, we also discuss important differences between studies that may have limited their use as clinical biomarkers and suggest new approaches.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Dysregulation of microRNA (mi-RNA) expression plays a major role in the development and progression of most human malignancies. Members of the miR-200 family, miR-182, miR-214 and miR-221 are frequently up-regulated, whereas miR-100, let-7i, miR-199a, miR-125b, mir-145 and miR-335 are often down-regulated in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovarian tissue. Most mi-RNA signatures are overlapping in different tumor histotypes but some mi-RNAs seem to be histotype specific. For instance, the endometrioid type shares with the serous and clear cell types the up-regulation of miR-200 family members, but also presents over-expression of miR-21, miR-202 and miR-205. Clear cell carcinoma has a significantly higher expression of miR-30a and miR-30a*, whereas mucinous histotype has elevated levels of miR-192/194. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that several mi-RNAs can modulate the sensitivity of ovarian cancer to platinum and taxane, and clinical studies have suggested that mi-RNA profiling may predict the outcome of patients with this malignancy. Some mi-RNAs could be used as biomarkers to identify patients that might benefit from the addition of molecularly targeted agents (i.e. anti-angiogenic agents, MET inhibitors and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors) to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, mi-RNAs could represent potential targets for the development of novel therapies.Gynecological Endocrinology 01/2014; · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because early detection is difficult and recurrent ovarian cancer is usually drug-resistant. The morbidity and mortality of ovarian cancer are high worldwide and new methods of diagnosis and therapy are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Thus, miRNAs are likely to be useful as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and for cancer therapy. Many miRNAs have altered expression in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovarian tissues and these changes may be useful for diagnosis and treatment. For example, deficiencies of enzymes including Dicer and Drosha that are required for miRNA biogenesis may be adverse prognostic factors; miRNAs such as miR-214 and miR-31, which are involved in drug resistance, and the miR-200 family, which is implicated in metastasis, may serve as biomarkers; and transfection of downregulated miRNAs and inhibition of upregulated miRNAs may be effective for treatment of ovarian cancer. Chemotherapy targeting epigenetic mechanisms associated with miRNAs may also be effective to reverse gene silencing.BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:232817.