A subset of uterine leiomyomas (UL) shows chromosomal rearrangements of the region 12q14 approximately q15, leading to an overexpression of the high-mobility group protein A2 gene (HMGA2). Recent studies identified microRNAs of the let-7 family as post-transcriptional regulators of HMGA2. Intragenic chromosomal breakpoints might cause truncated HMGA2 transcripts lacking part of the 3' UTR. The corresponding loss of let-7 complementary sites (LCS) located in the 3' UTR would therefore stabilize HMGA2 mRNA. The aim of this study was to check UL with rearrangements of the chromosomal region 12q14 approximately 15 for truncated HMGA2 transcripts by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. In 8/13 leiomyomas with aberrations of chromosomal region 12q15, the results showed the presence of the complete 3' UTR with all LCS. A differential expression with highly reduced 3' untranslated region levels was found in 5/13 myomas. In two of these, full-length transcripts were almost undetectable. Truncated transcripts were apparently predominant in roughly one-third of UL with chromosomal rearrangements affecting the HMGA2 locus, where they lead to a higher stability of its transcripts and subsequently contribute to the overexpression of the protein. The assay used is also generally suited to detect submicroscopic alterations leading to truncated transcripts of HMGA2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MYB is a leucine zipper transcription factor that is essential for hematopoesis and for renewal of colonic crypts. There is also ample evidence showing that MYB is leukemogenic in several animal species. However, it was not until recently that clear evidence was presented showing that MYB actually is an oncogene rearranged in human cancer. In a recent study, a novel mechanism of activation of MYB involving gene fusion was identified in carcinomas of the breast and head and neck. A t(6;9) translocation was shown to generate fusions between MYB and the transcription factor gene NFIB. The fusions consistently result in loss of the 3'-end of MYB, including several highly conserved target sites for microRNAs that negatively regulate MYB expression. Deletion of these target sites may disrupt the repression of MYB, leading to overexpression of MYB-NFIB transcripts and protein and to transcriptional activation of critical MYB target genes associated with apoptosis, cell cycle control, cell growth/angiogenesis and cell adhesion. This study, together with previous and recent data showing rearrangements and copy number alterations of the MYB locus in T-cell leukemia and certain solid tumors, will be the main focus of this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noncoding RNAs are key players in the regulation of complex cellular processes. Over the years, it has been demonstrated that
their abnormal expression is associated with many human pathologies including developmental and neurobehavioral disorders,
diabetes, obesity, and cancer. A wide spectrum of activities and a large number of genes that are regulated by RNA-dependent
mechanisms makes the ncRNA molecules attractive targets for developing next generation therapeutic agents. This chapter outlines
the principles of RNA regulation, the involvement of various RNAs in human diseases, and the strategies of application of
ncRNA-targeted therapeutic approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a common disease seen by gynecologists. Clinical features involve pelvic pain and unexplained infertility. Although endometriosis is pathologically characterized by endometrial tissue outside the normal uterine location, endometriosis is otherwise not easily explained. Endometriomas, endometriotic cysts of the ovary, typically cause pain and distortion of pelvic anatomy. To begin to understand the pathogenesis of endometriomas, we describe the first transcriptome-microRNAome analysis of endometriomas and eutopic endometrium using next-generation sequencing technology. Using this approach, we generated a total of more than 54 million independent small RNA reads from our 19 clinical samples. At the microRNA level, we found 10 microRNA that were up-regulated (miR-202, 193a-3p, 29c, 708, 509-3-5p, 574-3p, 193a-5p, 485-3p, 100, and 720) and 12 microRNA that were down-regulated (miR-504, 141, 429, 203, 10a, 200b, 873, 200c, 200a, 449b, 375, and 34c-5p) in endometriomas compared with endometrium. Using in silico prediction algorithms, we correlated these microRNA with their corresponding differentially expressed mRNA targets. To validate the functional roles of microRNA, we manipulated levels of miR-29c in an in vitro system of primary cultures of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts. Extracellular matrix genes that were potential targets of miR-29c in silico were significantly down-regulated using this biological in vitro system. In vitro functional studies using luciferase reporter constructs further confirmed that miR-29c directly affects specific extracellular matrix genes that are dysregulated in endometriomas. Thus, miR-29c and other abnormally regulated microRNA appear to play important roles in the pathophysiology of uterine function and dysfunction.
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