Retroperitoneal abscess with consecutive acute renal failure caused by a lost gallstone 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
ABSTRACT A 70-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain, acute renal failure, and fever 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the surgical drainage of the abscess formation on the patient's right flank, a huge gallstone was found in the retroperitoneum. The patient was dismissed from the hospital 11 days after admission with normal lab panel and restored renal function.
- SourceAvailable from: Muhammed Ashraf Memon[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with spillage of bile and gallstones occurs in a substantial number of patients (up to 40%). Most surgeons believe that free intraperitoneal stones are not a justification for conversion to laparotomy even if a large number of stones are left in situ. There are, however, a number of reports demonstrating that, on occasion, these unretrieved gallstones may cause infection or abscess, inflammation, fibrosis, adhesions, cutaneous sinuses, small bowel obstruction, or generalized septicemia. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of unretrieved gallstones in the peritoneal cavity after gallbladder perforation during LC. Methods: In a 7-year period between 1989 and 1996, prospective data were maintained on 856 patients who underwent LCs by a single surgeon (R.J.F.). Of the 856 patients, 165 (16%) had gallbladder perforations resulting in lost gallstones in the peritoneal cavity. A concerted attempt was made to remove the lost stones using a variety of extraction devices. Of these 165 patients, 106 (64%) were available for follow-up through mail (76%) and by telephone (24%). The mean age of these patients was 64.9 years (range, 18 to 98 years), and the mean follow-up was 44.8 months (range 4.9 to 92.3 months). Results: Of the 106 patients with unretrieved gallstones, we identified four patients with short-term complications and one patient with a long-term complication. The first patient with a short-term complication had pyrexia for 10 days postoperatively. Diagnostic evaluation, which included computed tomography (CT) scan, failed to reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated conservatively with a course of oral antibiotics. In the second patient, cellulitis developed at a drain site after its removal, which resolved with oral antibiotics. The third patient acquired an umbilical wound abscess, which drained spontaneously, requiring no treatment. A sterile subphrenic collection developed in the fourth patient 1 month postoperatively, which was treated with percutaneous drainage under CT guidance. The only long-term complication was spontaneous erosion of a gallstone from the back of a patient with a questionable history of inflammatory bowel disease 8 months postoperatively. All of the patients made complete recoveries. Conclusions: In most patients, unretrieved gallstones are of no consequence, but complications occur occasionally. It is therefore advisable to retrieve as many gallstones as possible during LC short of converting to a laparotomy.Surgical Endoscopy 01/1999; 13(9):848-857. · 3.43 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. – Perforation of the gallbladder and spillage of gallstones frequently occur in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. As stones may be lost and as spilled bile is known to be contaminated, influence on morbidity may be expected.Aims. – To evaluate the immediate and late consequences on morbidity of peroperative gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in an universitary hospital center.Patients and methods. – One hundred and twenty one LC were prospectively evaluated with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Elective operations on 30 men and 91 women with a mean age of 56.4 years (18–85) were carried out for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis in 97 cases (80%), and in 24 cases for complicated cholecystolithiasis. The “french technique” was used for all LC, with systematic intra-operative cholangiography and ultra Sonographie. Thirty-seven (30.5%) LC were performed by surgical trainees, 84 LC by confirmed surgeons. The consequences of ultra-operative gallbladder perforation were evaluated in the immediate postoperative period, especially for septic complications, and thereafter, patients were followed up 1, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively.Results. – Ultra-operative gallbladder perforation occured in 24 cases (20%), in 83.3% during gallbladder dissection. Gallstone spillage occured six times, and all spilled stones were removed. Gallbladder perforation was more frequent (but non significant) in acute cholecystitis (25 vs 19%, ns). A clear correlation to the skill and experience of the surgeon is shown (32.4 vs 14.2%, P =0.01). Gallbladder perforation is accompanied by an elevated (nonsignificant) postoperative morbidity (16.6 vs 7.2%, P =0.62) which is, in fact related to older patient and more acute cholecystitis in this group. No reoperations were necessary. One and two years follow-up revealed no long-term complications specially due to lost gallstones.Conclusion. – Peroperative gallbladder perforation during LC carries no morbidity, provided a total and complete recuperation of gallstones spilled and local treatment of bile contamination with local irrigation and antibiotics. This complication is correlated to the surgeon’s skill and experience.Annales de Chirurgie. 01/2004; 129(1):25-29.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spilled gallstones have emerged as a new issue in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We treated a 77-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subsequently, a right flank abscess developed. During the cholecystectomy, the gallbladder was perforated and stones were spilled. After a failed attempt to drain the abscess percutaneously, the patient required open drainage, which revealed retained gallstones in the right flank. The abscess resolved, although the patient continued to have intermittent drainage without evidence of sepsis. Review of the literature revealed 127 cases of spilled gallstones, of which 44.1% presented with intraperitoneal abscess, 18.1% with abdominal wall abscess, 11.8% with thoracic abscess, 10.2% with retroperitoneal abscess, and the rest with various clinical pictures. In case of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, every effort should be made to locate and retrieve the stones.Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 11/2002; 12(5):383-6. · 1.07 Impact Factor