Changes in Weight, cardiovascular risk factors and estimated risk of coronary heart disease following smoking cessation in Japanese male workers: HIPOP-OHP study.
ABSTRACT It is well established that people gain weight after smoking cessation; however, changes in cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated risk of coronary heart disease following smoking cessation have yet to be fully clarified.
The participants were 1,995 Japanese male workers at 11 workplaces who participated continuously in the High-risk and Population Strategy for Occupational Health Promotion (HIPOPOHP) study. Participants with a smoking habit had cardiovascular risk factors measured at baseline and over a 4-yr period. Their estimated incidence risk of coronary heart disease was calculated by a formula based on a previous cohort study.
Successful abstainers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the end of the follow-up period had weight gains of approximately 2 kg. These subjects had significant worsening of the following factors compared to continuing smokers: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting blood sugar levels. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol levels improved significantly. When the overall instantaneous incidence risk of coronary heart disease prior to smoking cessation was assumed to be 1.00, the estimated risk was 0.76 (95%CI: 0.68-0.85) in successful abstainers due mainly to smoking cessation, despite weight gain.
Although smoking cessation leads to weight gain, the estimated risk of coronary heart disease was decreased markedly by smoking cessation.
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have revealed that white blood cell count (WBC) is related to insulin resistance which is a central mechanism of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, few cohort studies have examined the role of WBC in the development of MetS. We hypothesized that WBC is associated with the future development of MetS, and investigated the longitudinal incidence of MetS in healthy workers. WBC was measured in 5,073 workers (mean age 42.5 years) without MetS at baseline. The incidence of MetS was monitored over 7 years of follow-up, in relation to quartiles of WBC. During the follow-up, 925 participants were diagnosed as MetS. Incidence of MetS was increased in participants with higher WBC: the rates of incidence of MetS were 22.6, 32.9, 42.9, and 57.5 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of WBC, respectively. After adjustments for confounding factors, the adjusted hazards ratio (95% confidence interval) for MetS was 1.00 (reference), 1.22 (0.98 to 1.51), 1.52 (1.24 to 1.87), and 1.66 (1.35 to 2.04) through the quartiles of WBC, respectively, (p <0.001). This relationship was consistent among current smokers and never smokers, and among male and female genders, respectively. WBC is useful in predicting the future development of MetS which leads to atherosclerotic diseases.Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(21):2491-8. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.50.5877 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Risk prediction for CVD events has been shown to vary according to current smoking status, pack-years smoked over a lifetime, time since quitting and age at quitting. The latter two are closely and inversely related. It is not known whether the age at which one quits smoking is an additional important predictor of CVD events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of CVD events varied according to age at quitting after taking into account current smoking status, lifetime pack-years smoked and time since quitting. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event for a cohort of participants in the Framingham Offspring Heart Study who attended the fourth examination between ages 30 and 74 years and were free of CVD. Those who quit before the median age of 37 years had a risk of CVD incidence similar to those who were never smokers. The incorporation of age at quitting in the smoking variable resulted in better prediction than the model which had a simple current smoker/non-smoker measure and the one that incorporated both time since quitting and pack-years. These models demonstrated good discrimination, calibration and global fit. The risk among those quitting more than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those whose age at quitting was prior to 44 years was similar to the risk among never smokers. However, the risk among those quitting less than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those who continued to smoke until 44 years of age (or beyond) was two and a half times higher than that of never smokers. Age at quitting improves the prediction of risk of CVD incidence even after other smoking measures are taken into account. The clinical benefit of adding age at quitting to the model with other smoking measures may be greater than the associated costs. Thus, age at quitting should be considered in addition to smoking status, time since quitting and pack-years when counselling individuals about their cardiovascular risk.BMC Research Notes 02/2011; 4:39. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-4-39
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ABSTRACT: Minimal data are available regarding the cumulative effects of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiometabolic risk. The objective of the present study was to examine a combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. The analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of 1454 participants from the population-based Lipid Research Clinic's Princeton Follow-up Study. The healthy lifestyle factors included fruit and vegetable intake ≥ 5 servings/d, meat intake ≤ 2 servings/d, never smoking, consuming 2-6 alcoholic drinks/week, television (TV) viewing time ≤ 2 h/d and moderate to vigorous physical activity ≥ 4 h/week. The combination of healthy lifestyle behaviours was strongly and negatively associated with the presence of cardiometabolic risk, as well as with a composite cardiometabolic risk score after adjustment for race, age, generation and sex. With each additional healthy lifestyle factor, cardiometabolic risk decreased by 31 % (OR 0·69; 95 % CI 0·61, 0·78). A higher healthy lifestyle score was associated with a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (P for trend < 0·001). Compared with individuals having 0-1 healthy lifestyle behaviours, those with 5 or 6 healthy lifestyle behaviours had a 70 % lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk (OR 0·30; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·67). Healthy lifestyle behaviours including sufficient fruit and vegetable intake, less meat intake, less TV viewing time, abstinence from smoking, modest alcohol intake and regular exercise are associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk.The British journal of nutrition 03/2011; 105(5):747-54. DOI:10.1017/S0007114510004307 · 3.34 Impact Factor