Myocardial autophagy variation during acute myocardial infarction in rats: The effects of carvedilol

Department of Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China.
Chinese medical journal (Impact Factor: 1.05). 10/2009; 122(19):2372-9. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.2009.19.033
Source: PubMed


The loss of cardiac myocytes is one of the mechanisms involved in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related heart failure. Autophagy is a common biological process in eukaryote cells. The relationship between cardiac myocyte loss and autophagy after AMI is still unclear. Carvedilol, a non-selective alpha1- and beta-receptor blocker, also suppresses cardiac myocyte necrosis and apoptosis induced by ischemia. However, the association between the therapeutic effects of carvedilol and autophagy is still not well understood. The aim of the present study was to establish a rat model of AMI and observe changes in autophagy in different zones of the myocardium and the effects of carvedilol on autophagy in AMI rats.
The animals were randomly assigned to a sham group, an AMI group, a chloroquine intervention group and a carvedilol group. The AMI rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The hearts were harvested at 40 minutes, 2 hours, 24 hours and 2 weeks after ligation in the AMI group, at 40 minutes in the chloroquine intervention group and at 2 weeks in other groups. Presence of autophagic vacuoles (AV) in the myocytes was observed by electron microscopy. The expression of autophagy-, anti-apoptotic- and apoptotic-related proteins, MAPLC-3, Beclin-1, Bcl-xl and Bax, were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting.
AVs were not observed in necrotic regions of the myocardium 40 minutes after ligation of the coronary artery. A large number of AVs were found in the region bordering the infarction. Compared with the infarction region and the normal region, the formation of AV was significantly increased in the region bordering the infarction (P < 0.05). The expression of autophagy- and anti-apoptotic-related proteins was significantly increased in the region bordering the infarction. Meanwhile, the expression of apoptotic-related proteins was significantly increased in the infarction region. In the chloroquine intervention group, a large number of initiated AVs (AVis) were found in the necrotic myocardial region. At 2 weeks after AMI, AVs were frequently observed in myocardial cells in the AMI group, the carvedilol group and the sham group, and the number of AVs was significantly increased in the carvedilol group compared with both the AMI group and the sham group (P < 0.05). The expression of autophagy- and anti-apoptotic-related proteins was significantly increased in the carvedilol group compared with that in the AMI group, and the positive expression located in the infarction region and the region bordering the infarction.
AMI induces the formation of AV in the myocardium. The expression of anti-apoptosis-related proteins increases in response to upregulation of autophagy. Carvedilol increases the formation of AVs and upregulates autophagy and anti-apoptosis of the cardiac myocytes after AMI.

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    • "The sample volume is 40 μg. Proteins were transferred to a polyvinylidene membrane [31, 32]. Rat anti-Bcl-2 monoclonal antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; Santa Cruz, CA) and mouse anti-Bax monoclonal antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology; Santa Cruz, CA) were used for Bcl-2 and Bax detection, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF) stems were mainly from longstanding overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies highlighted the potential benefits of β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR) blocker combined with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist in patients with HF. Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution, such as particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), has been found associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which is the most common cause of congestive HF. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combined metoprolol and terbutaline on cardiac function in a rat model of AMI exposed to PM2.5. Our results demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to aggravate cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. The combined use of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist is superior to β1-AR blocker alone for the treatment of AMI rats exposed to PM2.5. The combination of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist may decrease the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction who have been exposed to PM2.5.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:308295. DOI:10.1155/2014/308295 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Carvedilol has antioxidant activity [25], attenuates inflammatory mediators, and activates NF-kB [26]. Carvedilol treatment has been shown to delay oxidative-stress–induced apoptosis by improving Ca2+ handling [27] and increasing the expression of anti-apoptosis proteins [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, protects against myocardial injury induced by acute myocardium infarction (AMI). The mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effects of carvedilol are unknown. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated whether miR-29b is involved in the cardioprotective effect of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis. Male SD rats were randomized into several groups: the sham surgery control, left anterior descending (LAD) surgery-AMI model, AMI plus low-dose carvedilol treatment (1 mg/kg per day, CAR-L), AMI plus medium-dose carvedilol treatment (5 mg/kg per day, CAR-M) and AMI plus high-dose carvedilol treatment (10 mg/kg per day, CAR-H). Cardiac remodeling and impaired heart function were observed 4 weeks after LAD surgery treatment; the observed cardiac remodeling, decreased ejection fraction, and fractional shortening were rescued in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The upregulated expression of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA mRNA was significantly reduced in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. Moreover, the downregulated miR-29b was elevated in the CAR-M and CAR-H groups. The in vitro study showed that Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA were downregulated and miR-29b was upregulated by carvedilol in a dose-dependent manner in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Inhibition of ROS-induced Smad3 activation by carvedilol resulted in downregulation of Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA and upregulation of miR-29b derived from the miR-29b-2 precursor. Enforced expression of miR-29b significantly suppressed Col1a1, Col3a1, and α-SMA expression. Taken together, we found that smad3 inactivation and miR-29b upregulation contributed to the cardioprotective activity of carvedilol against AMI-induced myocardial fibrosis.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75557. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075557 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in rats as described previously. In brief, animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg), and AMI was established as described previously [30]. After implanting the electrocardiogram monitor, the rat was connected to a respirator through tracheotomy, and the heart was rapidly exteriorized through left thoracotomy and pericardial incision. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid droplet (LD) formation is a hallmark of cellular stress. Cells attempt to combat noxious stimuli by switching their metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, sparing resources in LDs for generating cellular reducing power and for anabolic biosynthesis. Membrane phospholipids are also a source of LDs. To elucidate the formation of LDs, we exposed mice to hyperoxia, hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, and sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). All the above-mentioned stressors enhanced the formation of LDs, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, with severe mitochondrial swelling. Disruption of mitochondria by depleting mitochondrial DNA ( ρ 0 cells) significantly augmented the formation of LDs, causing transcriptional activation of fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic reprogramming to glycolysis. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 counteracts CLP-mediated septic shock in mouse models. In HO-1-deficient mice, LD formation was not observed upon CLP, but a concomitant decrease in "LD-decorating proteins" was observed, implying a link between LDs and cytoprotective activity. Collectively, LD biogenesis during stress can trigger adaptive LD formation, which is dependent on mitochondrial integrity and HO-1 activity; this may be a cellular survival strategy, apportioning energy-generating substrates to cellular defense.
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