Immunogenicities of Env glycoproteins from circulating HIV-1 isolates in China focusing on the strategy of "DNA prime plus protein boost".

Department of HIV/AIDS Research, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China.
Chinese medical journal (Impact Factor: 1.02). 10/2009; 122(19):2339-45.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The adenovirus-based HIV-1 vaccine developed by Merck Company suffered from an unexpected failure in September 2007. This generated a big shift in the strategy of HIV vaccine development with renewed focus on the induction of neutralizing antibodies. A major challenge in developing an HIV-1 vaccine is to identify immunogens and adopt delivery methods that can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of different genetic subtypes.
Most circulating HIV-1 isolates in China are composed of clades Thai-B, CRF_BC and CRF01_AE. In order to construct DNA vaccines against these 3 HIV-1 subtypes, DNA vaccines carrying the gp120 regions from HIV-1 isolates of GX48(AE), GX79(AE), NX22(BC), GS22(BC), HN24(Thai-B) were constructed. Expression of gp120 from these DNA vaccines was detected by Western blotting in transiently transfected 293T cells. Pilot immunizations of New Zealand white rabbits were performed using the strategy of "DNA prime plus protein boost" and the neutralizing antibody response was detected in a Tzm-bl cell based assay against different HIV-1 strains.
Response of gp120-specific antibody was relatively low after DNA primes (mean titer = 10(4.72)); however, the titer of gp120-specific antibody went up with 2 protein boosts (mean titer = 10(6.81)). Above all, neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers induced by this combined approach were much better than those elicited by DNA or protein used alone (P < 0.01). Neutralizing activities of immunized rabbit sera against several pseudoviruses and laboratorial strains were evaluated, most rabbit sera primed with monovalent vaccine were capable of neutralizing only 1 of 5 viruses, however, sera primed with the polyvalent DNA vaccines were able to neutralize at least 2 of 5 viruses.
Polyvalent DNA prime plus protein boost is an effective immunization strategy to broaden the neutralization breadth and further research should be performed on the basis of this pilot study.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that mucosally targeted vaccines will enhance local humoral and cellular responses whilst still eliciting systemic immunity. We therefore investigated the capacity of nasal, sublingual or vaginal delivery of DNA-PEI polyplexes to prime immune responses prior to mucosal protein boost vaccination. Using a plasmid expressing the model antigen HIV CN54gp140 we show that each of these mucosal surfaces were permissive for DNA priming and production of antigen-specific antibody responses. The elicitation of systemic immune responses using nasally delivered polyplexed DNA followed by recombinant protein boost vaccination was equivalent to a systemic prime-boost regimen, but the mucosally applied modality had the advantage in that significant levels of antigen-specific IgA were detected in vaginal mucosal secretions. Moreover, mucosal vaccination elicited both local and systemic antigen-specific IgG(+) and IgA(+) antibody secreting cells. Finally, using an Influenza challenge model we found that a nasal or sublingual, but not vaginal, DNA prime/protein boost regimen protected against infectious challenge. These data demonstrate that mucosally applied plasmid DNA complexed to PEI followed by a mucosal protein boost generates sufficient antigen-specific humoral antibody production to protect from mucosal viral challenge.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67412. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067412 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58357. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058357 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we have shown that DNA prime-protein boost is effective in eliciting neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against randomly selected HIV-1 isolates. Given the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses and the unique predominant subtypes in different geographic regions, it is critical to test the DNA prime-protein boost approach against circulating viral isolates in key HIV endemic areas. In the current study, the same DNA prime-protein boost vaccine was used as in previous studies to investigate the induction of NAb responses against HIV-1 clade BC, a major subtype circulating in China. A codon optimized gp120-BC DNA vaccine, based on the consensus envelope (Env) antigen sequence of clade BC, was constructed and a stable CHO cell line expressing the same consensus BC gp120 protein was produced. The immunogenicity of this consensus gp120-BC was examined in New Zealand White rabbits by either DNA prime-protein boost or protein alone vaccination approaches. High levels of Env-specific antibody responses were elicited by both approaches. However, DNA prime-protein boost but not the protein alone immune sera contained significant levels of NAb against pseudotyped viruses expressing HIV-1 BC Env antigens. Furthermore, high frequencies of CD4 binding site-targeted antibodies were found in the DNA prime- protein boost rabbit sera indicating that the positive NAb may be the result of antibodies against conformationally sensitive epitopes on HIV-1 Env. The findings support that DNA prime-protein boost was effective in eliciting NAb against a key HIV-1 virus subtype in China. This result may lead to the development of regional HIV vaccines through this approach.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 10/2012; 8(11). DOI:10.4161/hv.21648 · 3.64 Impact Factor