The endocytoscopy system (ECS), adapted for clinical use in 2003, is an ultra-high-power magnifying endoscope that allows observations at the cell level. ECS is based on the technology of light-contact microscopy. The most evident use of ECS is for real-time, high-resolution diagnosis of nuclear abnormalities, mainly in patients with esophageal cancer. Up to now, three different types of ECS have been available. This diagnostic tool makes it possible to omit histological examination of biopsy samples in approximately 84% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as evidence for both an increase of cell density and nuclear abnormalities is considered to be convincing proof that a lesion is malignant. Here we describe the features of ECS and the background that led to its development, and review the published literature pertaining to the observation of esophageal neoplasms using ECS.
"Endoscopic optical biopsy techniques offer noninvasive real-time diagnosis. Some techniques currently being evaluated include optical coherence tomography [17,18], endocytoscopy , and narrow-band imaging (NBI) . NBI is an imaging technique that enhances the visualization of mucosal microstructures and microvessels. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent technological advances have stimulated the development of endoscopic optical biopsy technologies. This study compared the accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis using magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) and histologic diagnosis of esophageal squamous lesions.
Patients at high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were examined with endoscopy and subsequent biopsy. The lesions diagnosed as cancer on NBI and the lesions diagnosed as cancer on biopsy were resected endoscopically or surgically. Histological diagnoses of resected specimens, the reference standards in this study, were made by a pathologist who was blind to both the endoscopic and biopsy diagnoses. The primary outcome was the accuracy of endoscopic and biopsy diagnosis. A noninferiority trial design with a noninferiority margin of −10% was chosen to investigate the accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis using magnifying NBI.
Between November 2010 and October 2012, a total of 111 lesions in 85 patients were included in the analysis. The accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis and biopsy diagnosis for all lesions was 91.0% (101/111) and 85.6% (95/111), respectively. The difference in diagnostic accuracy was 5.4% (95% confidence interval: −2.9%–13.7%). The accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis and biopsy diagnosis of invasive cancers was 94.9% (74/78) and 84.6% (66/78), respectively. The difference was 10.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.6%–19.0%) for invasive cancers. The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval was above the prestated −10% in both cases.
Noninferiority of endoscopic diagnosis by magnifying NBI to histologic diagnosis by biopsy was established in this study (p = 0.0001).
The study was registered on 9th November 2010 in the University Hospital Medical Network Clinical Trials Registry as number: UMIN000004529.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using magnifying endoscopy have now been carried out extensively and, as a result, it has become clear that the morphology of the microvessels evident at the tumor surface reflects the depth of tumor invasion. In M1 and M2 cancer, the surface microvasculature reveals dilation and elongation of the intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCL). However, at this stage, some immature capillaries resembling IPCL also arise inside the tumor and, therefore, the view of the microvasculature should be described as one showing 'intermixing of modified IPCL and IPCL-like immature capillaries (IPCL-like abnormal capillary)'. As cancer invades into the muscularis mucosa (M3 or deeper), an obviously dilated and irregularly branched tumor-specific vasculature, more accurately described as 'neovasculature', can be observed. From our magnifying endoscopy observations and studies of the molecular profile of early esophageal cancer, we conclude that two major angiogenic steps exist in precancerous and M3 lesions in the early phase of cancer progression. In addition, it is now possible to study cell morphology using an endocytoscope with a much higher magnification (×400-×1000) than magnifying endoscopes currently on the market. The histology revealed in this way may reduce the need for conventional biopsy histology in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnification endoscopy enables in vivo evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Furthermore, endocytoscopy (ECS) with ultra-high magnification enables in vivo observation of cellular atypia during routine endoscopic examination. The purpose of this study is to clarify the efficacy of ECS and endocytoscopic atypia (ECA) classification in various types of benign and malignant pathology in the esophagus. Consecutive 110 patients, who underwent ECS in our institution from March 2003 to December 2009, were included in this study. One hundred and forty-six esophageal lesions were classified according to ECA classification, and these endocytoscopic images were compared with histological images. We categorized endocytoscopic images into five categories according to size and uniformity of nuclei, number of cells and regularity of cellular arrangement. Eighty-one out of 89 ECA-1 to ECA-3 lesions (91.0%) corresponded to Vienna categories 1 to 3. Seventy-one out of 84 ECA-4 or ECA-5 lesions (91.2%) corresponded to Vienna category 4 or 5. Overall accuracy of ECS was 91.3%, providing images similar to conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, with ECS, we can take an 'optical biopsy' even in patients with cardiovascular disease without interrupting anticoagulant therapy. A newly designed single charge-coupled device endocytoscope allows observation of target tissue noninvasibly from regular magnification to ultra-high magnification. The development of ECS has opened the door to in vivo cellular imaging, enabling endoscopic diagnosis of tissue cytological atypia during routine endoscopic examination.
Diseases of the Esophagus 09/2011; 25(3):235-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2050.2011.01241.x · 1.78 Impact Factor
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