Endocytoscopic observation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Department of Surgery, Ohta Nishinouchi Hospital, Koriyama, Japan.
Digestive Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 1.61). 01/2010; 22(1):10-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1443-1661.2009.00931.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The endocytoscopy system (ECS), adapted for clinical use in 2003, is an ultra-high-power magnifying endoscope that allows observations at the cell level. ECS is based on the technology of light-contact microscopy. The most evident use of ECS is for real-time, high-resolution diagnosis of nuclear abnormalities, mainly in patients with esophageal cancer. Up to now, three different types of ECS have been available. This diagnostic tool makes it possible to omit histological examination of biopsy samples in approximately 84% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as evidence for both an increase of cell density and nuclear abnormalities is considered to be convincing proof that a lesion is malignant. Here we describe the features of ECS and the background that led to its development, and review the published literature pertaining to the observation of esophageal neoplasms using ECS.

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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopy is an indispensible diagnostic and therapeutic instrument for gastrointestinal diseases. Endocytoscopy and confocal endomicroscopy are two types of ultra high magnification endoscopy techniques. Standard endoscopy allows for 50 × magnification, whereas endocytoscopy can magnify up to 1400 × and confocal endomicroscopy can magnify up to 1000 ×. These methods open the realm of real time microscopic evaluation of the GI tract, including cellular and subcellular structures. Confocal endomicroscopy has the additional advantage of being able to visualize subsurface structures. The use of high magnification endoscopy in conjunction with standard endoscopy allows for a real-time microscopic assessment of areas with macroscopic abnormalities, providing "virtual biopsies" with valuable information about cellular and subcellular changes. This can minimize the number of biopsies taken at the time of endoscopy. The use of this technology may assist in detecting pre-malignant or malignant changes at an earlier state, allowing for earlier intervention and treatment. High magnification endoscopy has shown promising results in clinical trials for Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell cancer, gastric cancer, celiac disease, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. As the use of high magnification endoscopy techniques increases, the clinical applications will increase as well. Of the two systems, only confocal endomicroscopy is currently commercially available. Like all new technologies there will be an initial learning curve before operators become proficient in obtaining high quality images and discerning abnormal from normal pathology. Validated criteria for the diagnosis of the various gastrointestinal diseases will need to be developed for each method. In this review, the basic principles of both modalities are discussed, along with their clinical applicability and limitations.
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    ABSTRACT: Endocytoscopy (ECS) is a novel endoscopic technique that allows detailed diagnostic examination of the gastrointestinal tract at the cellular level. We previously reported that use of ECS at ×380 magnification (GIF-Y0002) allowed a pathologist to diagnose esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with high sensitivity (94.9%) but considerably low specificity (46.7%) because this low magnification did not reveal information about nuclear abnormality. In the present study, we used the same magnifying endoscope to observe various esophageal lesions, but employed digital 1.6-fold magnification to achieve an effective magnification of ×600, and evaluated whether this improved the diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions.We examined the morphology of surface cells using vital staining with toluidine blue and compared the histological features of 40 cases, including 19 case of ESCC and 21 non-neoplastic esophageal lesions (18 cases of esophagitis, 1 case of glycogenic acanthosis, 1 case of leiomyoma, and 1 case of normal squamous epithelium). One endoscopist classified the lesions using the type classification, and we consulted one pathologist for judgment of the ECS images as 'neoplastic', 'borderline', or 'non-neoplastic'. At ×600 magnification, the pathologist confirmed that nuclear abnormality became evident, in addition to the information about nuclear density provided by observation at ×380. The overall sensitivity and specificity with which the endoscopist was able to predict neoplastic lesions using the type classification was 100% (19/19) and 90.5% (19/21), respectively, in comparison with values of 94.7% (18/19 cases) and 76.2% (16/21), respectively, for the pathologist using a magnification of ×600. The pathologist diagnosed two non-neoplastic lesions and one case of ESCC showing an apparent increase of nuclear density with weak nuclear abnormality as 'borderline'. Among the 21 non-cancerous lesions, two cases of esophagitis that were misdiagnosed by the endoscopist were also misinterpreted as 'neoplastic' by the pathologist. We have shown, by consultation with a pathologist, that an ECS magnification of ×600 (on a 19-inch monitor) is adequate for recognition of nuclear abnormality. We consider that it is feasible to diagnose esophageal neoplasms on the basis of ECS images, and that biopsy histology can be omitted if a combination of increased nuclear density and nuclear abnormality is observed.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 01/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the endocytoscopic visualization of squamous cell islands within Barrett's epithelium. Endocytoscopy (ECS) has been studied in the surveillance of Barrett's esophagus, with controversial results. In initial studies, however, a soft catheter type endocytoscope was used, while only methylene blue dye was used for the staining of Barrett's mucosa. Integrated type endocytoscopes (GIF-Q260 EC, Olympus Corp, Tokyo, Japan) have been recently developed, with the incorporation of a high-power magnifying endocytoscope into a standard endoscope together with narrow-band imaging (NBI). Moreover, double staining with a mixture of 0.05% crystal violet and 0.1% of methylene blue (CM) during ECS enables higher quality images comparable to conventional hematoxylin eosin histopathological images. In vivo endocytoscopic visualization of papillary squamous cell islands within glandular Barrett's epithelium in a patient with long-segment Barrett's esophagus is reported. Conventional white light endoscopy showed typical long-segment Barrett's esophagus, with small squamous cell islands within normal Barrett's mucosa, which were better visualized by NBI endoscopy. ECS after double CM staining showed regular Barrett's esophagus, while higher magnification (× 480) revealed the orifices of glandular structures better. Furthermore, typical squamous cell papillary protrusion, classified as endocytoscopic atypia classification (ECA) 2 according to ECA, was identified within regular glandular Barrett's mucosa. Histological examination of biopsies taken from the same area showed squamous epithelium within glandular Barrett's mucosa, corresponding well to endocytoscopic findings. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo visualization of esophageal papillary squamous cell islands surrounded by glandular Barrett's epithelium.
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