Endocytoscopic observation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Department of Surgery, Ohta Nishinouchi Hospital, Koriyama, Japan.
Digestive Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 1.61). 01/2010; 22(1):10-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1443-1661.2009.00931.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The endocytoscopy system (ECS), adapted for clinical use in 2003, is an ultra-high-power magnifying endoscope that allows observations at the cell level. ECS is based on the technology of light-contact microscopy. The most evident use of ECS is for real-time, high-resolution diagnosis of nuclear abnormalities, mainly in patients with esophageal cancer. Up to now, three different types of ECS have been available. This diagnostic tool makes it possible to omit histological examination of biopsy samples in approximately 84% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as evidence for both an increase of cell density and nuclear abnormalities is considered to be convincing proof that a lesion is malignant. Here we describe the features of ECS and the background that led to its development, and review the published literature pertaining to the observation of esophageal neoplasms using ECS.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aim: Endocytoscopy (ECS) enables in vivo microscopic imaging, which allows analysis of mucosal structures at the cellular level; however, limited data are available on the validity of ECS in the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ECS in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer. Patients and methods: Gastric lesions that were the targets of histopathological diagnosis by endoscopic submucosal dissection or biopsy specimen were prospectively enrolled and evaluated using a single charge-coupled device-integrated endocytoscope, following double staining with crystal violet and methylene blue. High grade ECS atypia was defined according to specific irregularities in gland structure and cell nuclei. The primary end point was the accuracy of ECS diagnosis for gastric cancer, using histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. Results: A total of 82 lesions were investigated, including 23 early gastric cancers, 10 gastric adenomas, and 49 non-neoplastic lesions. Ten lesions could not be clearly observed by ECS because of poor staining due to viscous mucus or plaque; thus, assessability rates with ECS were 88 % in total and 91 % for gastric cancer. High grade ECS atypia was observed in 86 % of assessable gastric cancers, but not in any cases of gastric adenomas or non-neoplastic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of high grade ECS atypia as the criterion for the diagnosis of gastric cancer were 86 %, 100 %, 100 %, and 94 %, respectively. No serious complications occurred during or after the examinations. Conclusion: ECS is a clinically feasible modality to obtain in vivo histology, with high diagnostic accuracy in gastric cancer.
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    ABSTRACT: The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the value of endocytoscopy to replace biopsy histology for squamous cell carcinoma and the clinical significance of posttherapy pathologic stage in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma following preoperative chemoradiation; a short discussion of evidence-based methodology is also included.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 1325(1). · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim: High-grade atypia demonstrated by endocytoscopy may be a key criterion for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. We therefore sought to verify whether endocytoscopic atypia can provide satisfactory levels of diagnostic accuracy and concordance among trainee and expert endoscopists. Method: A total of 100 lesions evaluated by endocytoscopy and histopathology were enrolled to create an endocytoscopic image catalog (44 early cancers, 10 low-grade adenomas, 46 non-neoplastic lesions). Four endoscopists (two trainees and two experts) independently reviewed the catalog images and evaluated each of them for the presence or absence of endocytoscopic atypia. High-grade endocytoscopic atypia, as a criterion for cancer diagnosis, was defined as the consistent observation of any of the following features: lumen absence, lumen fusion, and irregular nuclei showing the three typical features (heterogeneous shape, swelling, and disarrangement). Results: High-grade endocytoscopic atypia was observed in 78 %, 18 %, and 4 % of cancers, adenomas, and non-neoplastic lesions, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values for cancer diagnosis by endocytoscopy were 78.4 %, 93.3 %, 87.3 %, 85.4 %, and 87.3 %, respectively. The concordance rate for the results of high-grade endocytoscopic atypia was good among the four endoscopists (κ value 0.682). No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy or concordance was observed between trainee and expert endoscopists. Conclusion: Using the defined high-grade atypia as a diagnostic criterion of cancer, endocytoscopy provided a satisfactory level of accuracy and concordance for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer, regardless of endoscopic expertise.
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