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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the mechanism by which obesity may cause GERD is unclear. To examine the association between oesophageal acid exposure and total body or abdominal anthropometric measures. A cross-sectional study of consecutive patients undergoing 24 h pH-metry was conducted. Standardised measurements of body weight and height as well as waist and hip circumference were obtained. The association between several parameters of oesophageal acid exposures and anthropometric measures were examined in univariate and multivariate analyses. 206 patients (63% women) with a mean age of 51.4 years who were not on acid-suppressing drugs were enrolled. A body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m(2) (compared with BMI<25 kg/m(2)) was associated with a significant increase in acid reflux episodes, long reflux episodes (>5 min), time with pH<4, and a calculated summary score. These significant associations have affected total, postprandial, upright and supine pH measurements. Waist circumference was also associated with oesophageal acid exposure, but was not as significant or consistent as BMI. When adjusted for waist circumference by including it in the same model, the association between BMI>30 kg/m(2) and measures of oesophageal acid exposure became attenuated for all, and not significant for some, thus indicating that waist circumference may mediate a large part of the effect of obesity on oesophageal acid exposure. Obesity increases the risk of GERD, at least partly, by increasing oesophageal acid exposure. Waist circumference partly explains the association between obesity and oesophageal acid exposure.
    Gut 07/2007; 56(6):749-55. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a prospective study in 1224 patients referred for upper alimentary endoscopy, reflux oesophagitis was found in 195 (16%) of the patients and hiatus hernia in 249 (20%). In patients with reflux oesophagitis a coexisting hiatus hernia was found in 68%. The weight-for-height index (W/H1.8), which expresses the degree of overweight, was significantly higher both in patients with hiatus hernia and in the patients with reflux oesophagitis, indicating an overweight of approximately 5% in both groups. The overweight was most pronounced in oesophagitis grades 1 and 2, whereas in patients with severe oesophagitis (grade 3) body weight was normal, possibly owing to weight loss caused by dysphagia and excessive regurgitation. The results support the view that adiposity is associated with both sliding hiatus hernia and reflux oesophagitis and that hiatus hernia plays a role in the development of reflux oesophagitis.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 06/1988; 23(4):427-32. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux but may simply be explained by diet and lifestyle. We aimed to determine the contribution of BMI, diet and exercise to GER. Community subjects (n = 211, mean age = 36 years, 43% males) completed validated questionnaires on gastro-oesophageal reflux, energy expenditure (Harvard Alumni Activity Survey), dietary intake (Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire) and measures of personality and life event stress. Diet, exercise, BMI and other potential risk factors for reflux were analysed using logistic regression analyses. The overall mean (+/- s.d.) BMI was 26.6 (+/- 5.7); 79 (37%) reported infrequent (< weekly) reflux and 16 (8%) reported frequent (> or = weekly) reflux. The median caloric intake was 2097 cal/day and the median daily energy expenditure was 1753 cal/day. Among those with BMI > 25, 10% reported frequent reflux compared to 4% of those with BMI < or = 25. In a model which included age, sex and Symptom Checklist-90 somatisation T-score, BMI was associated with reflux (OR per 5 units = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). In models which included diet and exercise variables, BMI but not diet or exercise was associated with reflux. BMI may be associated with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux independent of diet and exercise.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2004; 20(5):497-505. · 4.55 Impact Factor

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