Neuroprotective function of cellular prion protein in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Steinhovelstr.1, 89075 Ulm, Germany.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.6). 03/2010; 176(3):1409-20. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.090355
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transgenic mice expressing human mutated superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) linked to familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are frequently used as a disease model. We used the SOD1G93A mouse in a cross-breeding strategy to study the function of physiological prion protein (Prp). SOD1G93APrp-/- mice exhibited a significantly reduced life span, and an earlier onset and accelerated progression of disease, as compared with SOD1G93APrp+/+ mice. Additionally, during disease progression, SOD1G93APrp-/- mice showed impaired rotarod performance, lower body weight, and reduced muscle strength. Histologically, SOD1G93APrp-/- mice showed reduced numbers of spinal cord motor neurons and extended areas occupied by large vacuoles early in the course of the disease. Analysis of spinal cord homogenates revealed no differences in SOD1 activity. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, a marked reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein and enhanced levels of collapsing response mediator protein 2 and creatine kinase were detected in SOD1G93APrp-/- versus SOD1G93A mice. In the course of disease, Bcl-2 decreases, nuclear factor-kappaB increases, and Akt is activated, but these changes were largely unaffected by Prp expression. Exclusively in double-transgenic mice, we detected a significant increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation at clinical onset. We propose that Prp has a beneficial role in the SOD1G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model by influencing neuronal and/or glial factors involved in antioxidative defense, rather than anti-apoptotic signaling.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot technique followed by limited protease digestion has been established to detect protein aggregates in prion diseases, alpha-synucleopathies, and tauopathies. We analyzed whether the scope of the method can be extended to analyze aggregates in mouse and human tissue with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation.Methods Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord tissue from SOD1G93A mice was first analyzed for the expression of SOD1, aggregated SOD1, ubiquitin, and p62 by convential immunohistochemistry and then used to establish the PET blot technique, limited protease digest, and immunodetection of SOD1 aggregates. The method was then transferred to spinal cord from an ALS patient with SOD1E100G mutation.ResultsMouse and human paraffin-embedded brain and spinal cord tissue can be blotted to membranes and stained with anti-SOD1 antibodies. The SOD1 labelling is abolished after limited proteolytic digest in controls, whereas under identical conditions SOD1 aggregates are detected the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and in human familial ALS. The most prominent areas where aggregates could be detected are the brainstem and the anterior horn of the spinal cord.DiscussionApplicability of the PET blot technique to demonstrate SOD1 aggregates in ALS tissue associated with mutations in the SOD1 gene offers a new approach to examine potential spreading of aggregates in the course of ALS.
    08/2014; 2(1):130. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-8556289621364030
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104343. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104343 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency causes an imbalance in some cytokines and growth factors in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the rat, and in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult Cbl-deficient (Cbl-D) patients. It is conceivable that this imbalance triggers subsequent cellular events. We hypothesized that an imbalance in normal prion (PrP(C)) levels and/or synthesis might be involved in the pathogenesis of Cbl-D neuropathy, and demonstrated that: (1) Cbl deficiency induces excess PrP(C) in rat spinal cord (SC) and PNS, concomitantly with myelin damage and PNS electrophysiological abnormalities; (2) the SC increase is mediated by a local Cbl deficiency-induced excess of tumor necrosis factor-α; (3) myelinotrophic Cbl and epidermal growth factor upregulate PrP(C)-mRNA levels in rat SC; (4) treatment with anti-PrP(C) octapeptide repeat region antibodies normalizes the ultrastructure of the Cbl-D rat SC and PNS myelins, and the PNS electrophysiological abnormalities, without modifying their Cbl-D status; (5) PrP(C) administration to otherwise normal rats causes SC and PNS myelin lesions and PNS electrophysiological abnormalities, similar to those of Cbl-D neuropathy; (6) CSF and serum PrP(C) concentrations in Cbl-D patients are significantly higher than in controls; and (7) these concentrations significantly correlate with their CSF and serum Cbl concentrations. CSF PrP(C) concentrations are significantly lower in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) than neurological controls, but serum PrP(C) concentrations in patients with non-Cbl-D anemias and CSF PrP(C) concentrations in patients with non-myelin-damaging neurological diseases are normal.
    Journal of Neurology 10/2013; 261(8). DOI:10.1007/s00415-013-7152-3 · 3.84 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014