Quantification of cerebrovascular reactivity by blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging and correlation with conventional angiography in patients with Moyamoya disease.
ABSTRACT BOLD MR imaging combined with a technique for precision control of end-tidal pCO(2) was used to produce quantitative maps of CVR in patients with Moyamoya disease. The technique was validated against measures of disease severity by using conventional angiography; it then was used to study the relationship between CVR, vascular steal, and disease severity.
A retrospective analysis comparing conventional angiography with BOLD MR imaging was performed on 11 patients with Moyamoya disease. Iso-oxic cycling of end-tidal pCO(2) between 2 target values was performed during BOLD MR imaging. CVR was calculated as the BOLD signal difference per Delta pCO(2). CVR was correlated with the presence of Moyamoya or pial collaterals and the degree of Moyamoya disease as graded by using a modified Suzuki score.
A good correlation between mean CVR and Suzuki score was found for the MCA and ACA territories (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.7560 and -0.6140, respectively; P < .0001). A similar correlation was found between mean CVR and the presence of pial and Moyamoya collateral vessels for combined MCA and ACA territories (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.7466; P < .0001). On a voxel-for-voxel basis, there was a greater extent of steal within vascular territories with increasing disease severity (higher modified Suzuki score). Mean CVR was found to scale nonlinearly with the extent of vascular steal.
Quantitative measures of CVR show direct correlation with impaired vascular supply as measured by the modified Suzuki score and enable direct investigation of the physiology of autoregulatory reserve, including steal phenomenon, within a given vascular territory.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is a mechanism responsible for maintaining stable perfusion pressure within the brain via smooth muscle mediated modulations of vascular tone. The amplitude of cerebral blood flow (CBF) change in response to a stimulus has been evaluated using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI, however the relationship between the stimulus and the measured signal remain unclear. CVR measured invasively in animal models and using blood-velocity based measurements in humans has demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between Cerebral Blood Flow and CO2 partial pressure. Using an ultra-high magnetic field strength (7T) MRI scanner and a computer controlled gas delivery system, we examined the regional and voxel-wise CVR response in relation to a targeted progressively increasing hypo- to hypercapnic stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess the non-linearity/sigmoidal behavior of the CVR response at varying arterial CO2 (PaCO2) levels. We find that a sigmoidal model provides a better description of the BOLD signal response to increasing PaCO2 than a linear model. A distinct whole-brain and gray matter BOLD-CVR signal plateau was observed in both voxel-wise and regional analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a progressively increasing stimulus in combination with a sigmoidal response model can be used to obtain CVR values and provides additional physiologically relevant information (such as linear and non-linear response domains, and maximum response amplitudes) that may be more difficult to obtain from blocked CVR experiments. Considering these results, we propose an alternative way in which to define CVR based on the derivative of the BOLD-CVR response curve, which can potentially be used to differentiate between healthy and diseased vascular states.NeuroImage 05/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PurposeBlood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-weighted and vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling (VE-ASL) MRI provide complementary information and can be used in sequence to gauge hemodynamic contributions to cerebrovascular reactivity. Here, cerebrovascular reactivity is assessed using dual echo VE-ASL MRI to understand how VE labeling preparations influence BOLD and ASL contrast in flow-limited and healthy perfusion territories.Methods Patients (n = 12; age = 55 +/– 14 years; 6F/6M) presenting with ischemic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease underwent 3.0T angiographic imaging, T1-weighted structural, and planning-free dual echo hypercarbic hyperoxic (i.e., carbogen) VE-ASL MRI. Vasculopathy extent, timecourses, and cerebrovascular reactivity (signal change and Z-statistic) for different VE-ASL images were contrasted across flow territories and Bonferroni-corrected P-values reported.ResultsBOLD cerebrovascular reactivity (i.e., long-TE VE-ASL) Z-statistics were similarly sensitive to asymmetric disease (P ≤ 0.002) regardless of labeling scenario. Cerebral blood flow reactivity correlated significantly with BOLD reactivity (Z-statistic). However, BOLD signal changes did not differ significantly between labeling scenarios (P > 0.003) or across territories (P > 0.002), indicating BOLD signal changes in response to carbogen offer low sensitivity to lateralizing disease.Conclusion Dual echo VE-ASL can provide simultaneous cerebral blood flow and qualitative BOLD contrast consistent with lateralizing disease severity in patients with asymmetric steno-occlusive disease. The methodological strengths and limitations of composite BOLD and VE-ASL measurements in the clinic are discussed. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 04/2014; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how cerebral blood flow and bolus arrival time (BAT) measures derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI data change for different hypercarbic gas stimuli. Pseudocontinuous ASL (pCASL) was applied (3.0T; spatial resolution=4 × 4 × 7 mm(3); repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=3,600/11 ms) sequentially in healthy volunteers (n=12; age=30±4 years) for separate experiments in which (i) normocarbic normoxia (i.e., room air), hypercarbic normoxia (i.e., 5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2), and hypercarbic hyperoxia (i.e., carbogen: 5% CO2/95% O2) gas was administered (12 L/minute). Cerebral blood flow and BAT changes were quantified using models that account for macrovascular signal and partial volume effects in all gray matter and regionally in cerebellar, temporal, occipital, frontal, and parietal lobes. Regional reductions in BAT of 4.6% to 7.7% and 3.3% to 6.6% were found in response to hypercarbic normoxia and hypercarbic hyperoxia, respectively. Cerebral blood flow increased by 8.2% to 27.8% and 3.5% to 19.8% for hypercarbic normoxia and hypercarbic hyperoxia, respectively. These findings indicate that changes in BAT values may bias functional ASL data and thus should be considered when choosing appropriate experimental parameters in calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging or ASL cerebrovascular reactivity experiments that use hypercarbic gas stimuli.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 30 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.81.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 04/2014; · 5.46 Impact Factor