Association of increased maternal ferritin levels with gestational diabetes and intra-uterine growth retardation.
ABSTRACT The objectives of the present study were to determine whether or not increased serum ferritin in women with premature labour is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and, if so, whether or not such increased levels reflect excess maternal iron stores, and have an effect on neonatal iron status and outcome.
This prospective, single-hospital, observational study involved 63 mothers and their 90 preterm neonates. Full blood counts as well as serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and erythropoietin concentrations were compared across the three study groups based on maternal ferritin levels at the time of delivery. Perinatal history, neonatal morbidity and early outcomes were also assessed.
High maternal ferritin levels were significantly associated with higher rates of GDM and IUGR. However, there was no correlation between maternal ferritin and sTfR levels or between maternal and neonatal iron status.
Elevated maternal ferritin is not a reflection of excess iron stores, but is related to an increased risk of GDM or IUGR. Also, maternal ferritin levels are not associated with either neonatal iron status or neonatal outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Fetal growth restriction is reported to be associated with impaired placental iron transport. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a major placental iron transporter in humans, but is unstudied in sheep. TfR is regulated by both iron and nitric oxide (NO), the molecule produced by endothelial NOS (eNOS). We hypothesized that limited placental development downregulates both placental TfR and eNOS expression, thereby lowering fetal tissue iron.Methods:An ovine surgical uterine space restriction (USR) model, combined with multifetal gestation, tested the extremes of uterine and placental adaptation. Blood, tissues, and placentomes from non-space restricted (NSR) singletons were compared to USR fetuses at 120 or 130 days of gestation (GD).Results:When expressed proportionate to fetal weight, liver iron content did not differ while renal iron was higher in USR vs. NSR fetuses. Renal TfR protein expression did not differ, but placental TfR expression was lower in USR fetuses at GD130. Placental levels of TfR correlated to eNOS. TfR was localized throughout the placentome, including the hemophagous zone, implicating a role for TfR in ovine placental iron transport.Conclusion:In conclusion, fetal iron was regulated in an organ-specific fashion. In USR fetuses, NO-mediated placental adaptations may prevent the normal upregulation of placental TfR at GD130.Pediatric Research (2012); doi:10.1038/pr.2012.180.Pediatric Research 11/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Foetal growth is a result of a complex net of processes, requiring coordination within the maternal, placental, and foetal compartments, the imbalance or lack of which may lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR is the major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and is also related to enhanced morbidity and metabolic abnormalities later in life. In the present study, the protein profiles of umbilical cord serum (UCS) and amniotic fluid (AF) of ten IUGR and ten appropriate for gestational age newborns have been analysed by 2-DE, and nanoHPLC-Chip/MS technology. A total of 18 and 13 spots were found to be differentially expressed (p<0.01) in UCS and AF respectively. The unique differentially expressed proteins identified by MS/MS analysis were 14 in UCS, and 11 in AF samples. Protein gene ontology classification indicate that 21% of proteins are involved in inflammatory response, 20% in immune response, while a smaller proportion are related to transport, blood pressure, and coagulation. These results support the conclusion that the IUGR condition alters the expression of proteins involved in the coagulation process, immune mechanisms, blood pressure and iron and copper homeostasis control, offering a new insight into IUGR pathogenesis.Electrophoresis 12/2011; 32(24):3630-7. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate the predictive value of maternal serum and amniotic fluid biomarkers that were obtained at the time of genetic amniocentesis for preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 06/2014; 40(6):1540-6. · 0.84 Impact Factor