Treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies Culicoides nubeculosus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
ABSTRACT An in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (Deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v Fort Dodge Animal Health) against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Linneaus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and also from untreated controls. In laboratory assays groups of 10 adult female C. nubeculosus, Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 0.5g of hair for 3min. In all cases, little or no mortality was observed in insects kept in contact with the pre-treatment samples or the untreated controls. With post-treatment samples for C. nubeculosus, mortality was close to 80% 7 days after treatment and then declined gradually; mean mortality was still at around 50% for hair collected 35 days after treatment. In general, Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus appeared to be less susceptible to cypermethrin than C. nubeculosus and the attenuation of the toxic effect declined more quickly with time after treatment. There were differences in the toxicity of hair from different body regions, with hair from the back consistently inducing the highest mortality and hair from the legs the lowest; this effect was more pronounced for C. nubeculosus than Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus. The results demonstrate the potential for topical insecticide treatment to offer protection to horses against biting flies; but highlight the major differences that exist in susceptibility between different insect species.
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting.Medical and Veterinary Entomology 07/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of several arboviruses, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which cause diseases in, respectively, sheep and cattle, and horses, and have economic repercussions mainly as a result of trade restrictions. Insecticides can be used to reduce vector populations and hence the spread of disease. Despite the economic importance of these diseases, relatively few studies have evaluated the efficacy of commercially available insecticides and the effectiveness of treated nets against Culicoides species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of commercially available polyethylene nets (ZeroVector®) treated with deltamethrin (4.4 g/kg ± 15%) on Culicoides species. Laboratory and field trials were conducted in Culicoides populations collected in Majorca in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The present study shows that deltamethrin-treated nets provoke high and rapid mortality (90–100%) in Culicoides midges under laboratory conditions and increase mortality by 13% when deployed in the field.Medical and Veterinary Entomology 05/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
Article: A. ANADÓN, I. ARÉS, M.A. MARTÍNEZ, and M.R. ROSA MARTÍNEZ-LARRAÑAGA (2013). Chapter 131. Pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids: use in veterinary medicine. In Handbook of Natural Products (K.G. Ramawat and J.M. Merillon, eds). Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (Germany) pp. 1-25. DOI 10.10007/978-3-642-22144-6_13101/2013;