Job requirements compared to medical school education: differences between graduates from problem-based learning and conventional curricula

Institute for Teaching and Educational Research in Health Sciences, Private University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
BMC Medical Education (Impact Factor: 1.22). 01/2010; 10(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-10-1
Source: PubMed


Problem-based Learning (PBL) has been suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve medical education. We sought to evaluate the differences in medical school education between graduates from PBL-based and conventional curricula and to what extent these curricula fit job requirements.
Graduates from all German medical schools who graduated between 1996 and 2002 were eligible for this study. Graduates self-assessed nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in medical school on a 6-point Likert scale. Results were compared between graduates from a PBL-based curriculum (University Witten/Herdecke) and conventional curricula.
Three schools were excluded because of low response rates. Baseline demographics between graduates of the PBL-based curriculum (n = 101, 49% female) and the conventional curricula (n = 4720, 49% female) were similar. No major differences were observed regarding job requirements with priorities for "Independent learning/working" and "Practical medical skills". All competencies were rated to be better taught in PBL-based curriculum compared to the conventional curricula (all p < 0.001), except for "Medical knowledge" and "Research competence". Comparing competencies required at work and taught in medical school, PBL was associated with benefits in "Interdisciplinary thinking" (Delta + 0.88), "Independent learning/working" (Delta + 0.57), "Psycho-social competence" (Delta + 0.56), "Teamwork" (Delta + 0.39) and "Problem-solving skills" (Delta + 0.36), whereas "Research competence" (Delta--1.23) and "Business competence" (Delta--1.44) in the PBL-based curriculum needed improvement.
Among medical graduates in Germany, PBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of physicians. Research and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

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Available from: Martin R Fischer, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational method that uses real-world cases to facilitate learning through a studentcentered approach. PBL has been widely accepted by health care educators as a pedagogical/andragogical model to promote and develop essential skills needed by 21 st -century professionals (Schlett et al., 2010; Stewart, Brown, Clavier, & Wyatt, 2011; Tavakol & Reicherter, 2003). To corroborate this, the Association of American Colleges and Universities conducted a " National Survey of Business and Nonprofit Leaders " to determine which skills employers hold in highest regard when making hiring decisions (Hart Research Associates , 2013). "
    04/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.7771/1541-5015.1509
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    • "The described assessments of competencies were based on self-perception [7], [14]. Some studies suggest that self-perception can differ from objective measures [29], [30], but Schlett et al. suggest very similar data to objective measurements concerning self-perception of graduates [15]. Given the limitations of the present analysis, further research to confirm and extend our findings such as longitudinal follow-up studies and objective assessments of competencies is mandatory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Case-based learning (CBL) is suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve dental education. The purpose of this study was to assess graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL)-based curriculum as regards to key competencies required at their professional activity. 407 graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL) dental curriculum who graduated between 1990 and 2006 were eligible for this study. 404 graduates were contacted between 2007 and 2008 to self-assess nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in dental school on a 6-point Likert scale. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. To determine whether dental education sufficiently covers the job requirements of physicians, we calculated the mean difference ∆ between the ratings of competencies as required in day-to-day work and as taught in medical school by subtracting those from each other (negative mean difference ∆ indicates deficit; positive mean difference ∆ indicates surplus). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to reveal statistical significance (statistical significance p<0.05). 41.6% recipients of the questionnaire responded (n=168 graduates). A homogeneous distribution quantity of the graduate groups concerning gender, graduation date, professional experience and average examination grade was achieved.Comparing competencies required at work and taught in medical school, CBL was associated with benefits in "Research competence" (∆+0.6) "Interdisciplinary thinking" (∆+0.47), "Dental medical knowledge" (∆+0.43), "Practical dental skills" (∆+0.21), "Team work" (∆+0.16) and "Independent learning/working" (∆+0.08), whereas "Problem-solving skills" (∆-0.07), "Psycho-social competence" (∆-0.66) and "Business competence" (∆-2.86) needed improvement in the CBL-based curriculum. CBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of dentists. Psycho-social and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.
    GMS Zeitschrift fü medizinische Ausbildung 08/2012; 29(4):Doc54. DOI:10.3205/zma000824
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    • "Compared to their traditionally trained counterparts, PBL-trained practitioners make more accurate diagnoses, exhibit more effective clinical problem-solving techniques, receive more favorable faculty reviews, and form more effective interpersonal relationships with patients (Distelhorst et al., 2005). PBL also produces significantly higher scores on measures of humanism, teamwork, interpersonal skills, communication with patients or clients, psychosocial skills, self-reflective abilities, and other basic professional competencies (Schlett et al., 2010). PBL also leads to higher long-term student and faculty satisfaction as measured by more positive attitudes and opinions concerning the program, enhanced student mood, and higher class attendance (Savery, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of the nationwide high prevalence of psychological trauma in children and adolescents, combined with increasing awareness of the far-reaching adverse consequences of childhood trauma, have led to calls to develop a trauma-informed mental health workforce. We describe the initial pilot test of the Core Concepts portion of the Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma, as conducted in a large graduate school of social work. The Core Curriculum uses detailed case vignettes of trauma-exposed youth and families, combined with problem-based learning methods, to promote two primary learning aims: (a) to enhance the development of foundational trauma-related conceptual knowledge, and (b) to accelerate the acquisition of trauma-informed clinical reasoning and clinical judgment. Vignettes are presented in segments to simulate gathering, organizing, drawing meaning from, and making decisions based on information in professional practice. After each segment, the facilitator helps learners to summarize relevant facts, develop hunches and hypotheses, identify learning issues, and plan next steps. The Curriculum was very favorably received by students and was associated with marked increases in self-efficacy in applying the Core Concepts to work with trauma-exposed youth and families. We discuss ways in which the Curriculum can be used, especially as a foundation for training in specific evidence-based treatment protocols, to help prepare a national mental health workforce capable of implementing trauma-informed evidence-based practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 08/2011; 3(3):243-252. DOI:10.1037/a0025039 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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