DIALOG and SYNC: a VLSI chip set for timing of the LHCb Muon detector
ABSTRACT The Muon detector of the LHCb experiment at CERN plays a fundamental role in the first trigger level. It is mainly realized by means of a MWPC technology and consists of about 126,000 front-end channels. High efficiency is necessary both at detector and front-end level to satisfy the trigger requirement of 5 hits per 5 Muon stations with an overall efficiency of 95%. This corresponds to having a single front-end channel detection efficiency of 99% within a time window of 20 ns and also poses the problem of an accurate time alignment of the whole detector. The problem is addressed by designing two custom integrated circuits, named DIALOG and SYNC, realized in the IBM 0.25μm radiation hard technology.
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ABSTRACT: Electrogastrography (EGG) is a reliable technique to record gastric electrical activity. However, the normal values of electrical activity in children and the effects of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) are not well defined. To evaluate these items, EGG signal was picked up before and after a meal in 114 healthy children (age range: 6-12 years) by means of a pair of cutaneous electrodes sonographically placed on the abdominal surface. The dominant frequency was prevalently found in the 2.0-4.0 cpm range (P < 0.001). A significant difference was found comparing the pre- and postprandial instability coefficient of dominant frequency (P < 0.05). The EGG power increased postprandially (power ratio = 3.6), and the power ratio was not correlated to the approach of the wall of the gastric antrum to the abdominal surface (Spearman r = 0.0045, NS). In obese children, the postprandial pattern in response to a mixed test meal containing carbohydrate as the major caloric source was similar to that recorded in normal-weight children. EGG parameters were not affected by age and gender apart from a significant difference in the postprandial instability coefficient obtained from the "girls > or = 9 years" group compared to the "girls <9 years" and "boys > or = 9 years" groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in children 6-12 years old, EGG parameters are not affected by BMI in response to a mixed test meal. Gastric electrical rhythm and rate, and gastric power are not influenced by age and gender, whereas the instability coefficient seems to be influenced by these factors. The normal values of the EGG parameters evaluated in this study should be introduced in the analysis of gastric electrical activity for an effective interpretation of the EGG signal from children with functional or organic diseases.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/1998; 43(8):1646-51. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current tests of gastric and small intestinal motor function provide relevant physiological information, but their clinical utility is controversial. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance, pitfalls, and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy, gastroduodenojejunal manometry, and surface electrogastrography in humans. Methods included review of literature and discussions in closed and open fora among investigators, including presentations for peer review at focused (Iowa City American Motility Society Symposium, December 1995) and national meetings (American Gastroenterological Association, May 1996, and American Motility Society, September 1996). The current tests are generally complementary; scintigraphy is typically the first test in the evaluation of gastric motor function and often confirms the clinical suspicion of dysmotility. Manometry identifies patterns suggestive of myopathy, neuropathy, or obstruction but may be most helpful when it shows entirely normal findings, because manometry helps in part to exclude dysmotility as a cause of symptoms. Electrogastrography may identify dysrhythmias or failure of signal power to increase postprandially; rhythm abnormalities may be independent of impaired emptying among dyspeptic patients. The best validated and clinically most significant results pertain to transit tests; manometry may contribute importantly to the diagnostic process; and the significance of electrogastrography remains to be fully elucidated.Gastroenterology 10/1998; 115(3):747-62. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation of patients with vitamin B(12) deficiency varies in a spectrum ranging from haematological disorders to neuropsychiatric diseases. In rare cases, orthostatic hypotension, impotence, constipation and urinary retention have been attributed to autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B(12) deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin B(12) deficiency on autonomic nervous system function by studying gastric emptying times ( T(1/2)). Twenty patients with newly diagnosed vitamin B(12) deficiency and 12 control patients with gastritis and normal vitamin B(12) levels were enrolled in this study. Gastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic biopsy, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy specimens and radionuclide gastric emptying studies were performed. After vitamin B(12) replacement therapy for 3 months, radionuclide gastric emptying studies were repeated. Mean gastric emptying T(1/2) in patients before and after treatment and in controls were 103.83+/-48.80 min, 90.00+/-17.29 min and 74.55+/-8.52 min, respectively. The difference in mean gastric emptying T(1/2) between patients before treatment and controls was statistically significant ( P<0.01). The statistically significant difference persisted after vitamin B(12) treatment ( P<0.05), though mean gastric emptying T(1/2) was somewhat shorter. There were no positive or negative correlations between gastric emptying T(1/2) and the following parameters: haemoglobin, vitamin B(12) level and Helicobacter pylori positivity. In conclusion, gastric emptying T(1/2) was prolonged in patients with vitamin B(12) deficiency and this prolongation was not corrected after vitamin B(12) replacement therapy. Although autonomic nervous system dysfunction due to vitamin B(12) deficiency rarely gives rise to clinical manifestations, latent dysfunction demonstrated by laboratory tests seems to be a frequent phenomenon. The level of vitamin B(12) does not correlate with the degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction measured by radionuclide gastric emptying studies.European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 10/2002; 29(9):1125-7. · 5.11 Impact Factor
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 5, OCTOBER 20041961
DIALOG and SYNC: A VLSI Chip Set for
Timing of the LHCb Muon Detector
Sandro Cadeddu, Vincenzo De Leo, Caterina Deplano, and Adriano Lai, Member, IEEE
Abstract—The Muon detector of the Large Hadron Collider
(LHCb) experiment at the Center for Nuclear Research plays a
fundamental role in the first trigger level. It is mainly realized
by means of a MWPC technology and consists of about 126,000
front-end channels. High efficiency is necessary both at detector
and front-end level to satisfy the trigger requirement of five hits
per five Muon stations with an overall efficiency of 95%. This cor-
responds to having a single front-end channel detection efficiency
of 99% within a time window of 20 ns and also poses the problem
of an accurate time alignment of the whole detector. The problem
is addressed by designing two custom integrated circuits, named
DIALOG and SYNC, realized in the IBM 0.25
rently under construction at the European Center for Nuclear
Research (CERN)—and it aims at the study of CP violation in
the B meson sector. The LHCb muon detector is based on about
1,400 Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) distributed
in five stations along the beam axis. It gives space-point infor-
mation in binary form. In total the detector consists of 126000
channels. The muon detector is especially important in the first
LHCb trigger level (L0—level zero in the LHCb terminology).
126000 detector (“physical”) channels as proper logical combi-
nations of them and sent to the trigger. The L0 trigger gives a
fast response (4 s latency) on the transverse momentum of the
detected muon track. A muon track is identified by five space
points (hits), one per station, aligned and pointing to the inter-
action point. In order to have a satisfactory trigger performance,
we require a detection efficiency of 95% in muon identification,
which reflects to the requirement of a 99% detection efficiency
per muon station.
The LHCb interactions have a bunched structure with a pos-
sible Bunch Crossing (BX) every 25 ns. The L0 muon trigger
expects from the detector front-end electronics the complete
binary map of the muon detector along with the associated
BX identifier, which univocally defines the event time. This
information must be supplied every 25 ns. Both the trigger and
the read-out electronics operate synchronously according to a
pipelined architecture. In order to assign the correct BX identi-
fier, it is necessary to equalize all the different contributions to
HE LARGE Hadron Collider (LHCb) experiment  is
one of the four experiments of the LHC machine—cur-
Manuscript received November 14, 2003; revised June 4, 2004.
The authors are with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione
di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Italy (e-mail:
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TNS.2004.835574
Fig. 1.Typical time distribution of LHCb MWPC signals.
channel signal delays before sending the detector information
to the trigger. The main contributions to channel delays are
due to the time of flight of the particles (M1, the first muon
station is about 7 m from the last one—M5) and the cable
lengths (there are 10–15 m from the chambers and the place
where the channel information is collected before being sent
to the trigger). These contributions can give a relative delay
among different channels of more than one BX and must be
Another important point to consider is the specific time res-
olution of detector and associated front-end electronics, which
corresponds to a typical R.M.S. of 3–4 ns (Fig. 1). In order to
avoid that the tails of the time distributions are assigned to a
wrong BX, it is necessary to align them accurately inside the
time window of 25 ns. This means that it is also necessary to
measurethe phaseof thehitsinside a BX periodand reconstruct
the time distribution of the hits for each channel. This informa-
tion is not used by the muon trigger, but is important for proper
time alignment of the whole detector channels and, in the end,
to ensure the required trigger efficiency.
Once the time alignment is reached, it is still important to
monitor possible variation of the time behavior, due to environ-
mental conditions variations (e.g., atmospheric pressure, tem-
perature) or possible changes in the rest of the system (e.g.,
supply voltage variations).
0018-9499/04$20.00 © 2004 IEEE
1962IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004
Fig. 2.Architecture of Muon system electronics.
All these reasons motivate the use of built-in dedicated cir-
cuitry in the muon front-end electronics in order to:
1) measure the arrival time of the detector signals with suf-
2) build the signal time distributions;
3) compensatefor therelativedelay amongthe system chan-
In the present paper, we will describe the above functionalities
as implemented in two custom integrated circuits, named DI-
ALOG and SYNC. DIALOG and SYNC are two basic building
blocks in themuon electronics systemand implementalso other
important functionalities. In this paper, however, we will only
focus on structures dedicated to system timing.
II. FRONT-END ELECTRONICS
Section we briefly describe the system architecture.
in Fig. 2. It can be subdivided into three parts. Proceeding from
the chambers to the trigger and DAQ systems, we find the “on-
detector” part, the “intermediate” part, and the “off-detector”
The on-detector part contains the Amplifier-Shaper-Discrim-
inator (ASD) chip, named CARIOCA , and the DIALOG
chip. Binary signals are output from the ASD. DIALOG pro-
at the detector level.
Boards (IBs), that are placed at the two sides of the detector,
at an average distance from the on-detector boards of about
10 m. They are necessary because the logical channels are gen-
chamber, so the logical combination must be completed outside
the detector. Service Boards, used to configure and monitor the
front-end electronics parameters and low voltage supply system
are also placed atthe intermediate level,but do not influence the
path of the signals.
The Off-Detector Electronics (ODE) is also placed at the two
sides of the detector. Each 25 ns, the binary information gen-
erated on chambers is collected on the ODE boards, where it
is endowed with its BX identifier and it is stored on a pipeline
memory. There, it waits for the L0 trigger response in order to
be passed to the next trigger level or to be discarded. While
being written onto pipeline memories, data have to be tagged
with their BX identifier and sent to the L0 trigger. At this point,
all the signals have to be already aligned in time. The SYNC
chip, placed inside the ODE boards, performs the operation of
time alignment check and BX identifier tagging.
In order to realize a proper time alignment of the detector
channels at the beginning of data taking and to monitor the
system time alignment during data taking, dedicated electronic
tools have been developed.
The idea is to measure the signals’ occurrence time at the end
of the chain, where all the delay contribution have already had
their effect, just before sending the detector information to the
L0 trigger. There the phase of the signal inside a BX period is
measured and time distributions can be built. This operation is
performed inside the SYNC chip, on the ODE boards. Once
the amount of the delay to be compensated is determined, the
due corrections have to be applied channel by channel at the
beginning of the chain, before signals start to be combined the
one with the others. The delay compensation is realized inside
the DIALOG chip, placed on the chambers.
CADEDDU et al.: VLSI CHIP SET FOR TIMING OF THE LHCb MUON DETECTOR
MAIN DAC CHARACTERISTICS
As the total delay can fairly exceed one single BX period, we
divide the total delay compensation
in two parts
is called Coarse delay and
is an integer number of BX periods, while
fraction of BX period to be added for a fine alignment at the
level of a few nanoseconds. For practical reasons, the
compensated at the end of the chain (SYNC chip), when the
BX identifier is assigned to data, while the
at the beginning of the chain (DIALOG chip) by means of pro-
The circuits dedicated to delay measurement and compensa-
tion are the subjects of Sections III and IV.
is called Finedelay.
III. TIMING STRUCTURES AND THE DIALOG CHIP
DIALOG is developed in IBM 0.25 m technology. By using
Mrad. For the muon detector, the maximum accumulated dose
during ten years of LHCb operation is estimated to be about
On the front-end boards, one DIALOG serves two ASD, for
a total of 16 front-end channels. DIALOG contains the logics to
function has to be selected inside a number of configurations,
because it varies according to the detector position. DIALOG
DIALOG also integrates many features used for system control
ternal registers via an
interface . In this paper, however,
we want to concentrate our attention on the DIALOG facilities
the DIALOG internal structure and functionalities can be found
Fig. 3.RC delay unit.
Each single channel of the 16 DIALOG input channels can
be delayed by a programmable number of steps, from 0 to 32.
As the intrinsic time resolution of the detectorand its associated
Our initial choice was simply to set the delay step to around
1.5 ns, by using a cascade of RC delay units of the kind showed
in Fig. 3.
This trivial solution, however, is extremely prone to tech-
nology process parameters variations, which affect the value of
the resistance and capacitance of the delay step, in such a way
that one single delay unit does not univocally correspond to a
ation, a calibration scheme has been conceived. The simple RC
delay step has been changed into a Voltage Controlled Delay
Unit, according to the scheme given in Fig. 4. Voltages
are generated from a control voltage (see below) and reg-
ulate the current flowing trough the cascaded inverters M1–M2
and M3–M4. This allow to change the rising time at the output
of the first two inverters, thus changing the effective delay from
The problem now is to find the appropriate control voltage
corresponding to the wanted value of the delay step. For this
purpose we use a Delay Locked Loop (DLL), as explained in
A. DLL and Delay Calibration
We designed a classic DLL scheme of the kind shown in
Fig. 5, formed by a Phase Detector, a Charge Pump and a
Voltage Controlled Delay Line (VCDL) , . The VCDL is
formedbya cascadeof16DelayUnits, perfectlymatchedtothe
Delay Units used on the Programmable Delay lines of the input
channels. By using a Reference Clock of a given frequency,
the value corresponding to a delay step is determined. As the
DLL locks in an interval of frequencies, this gives an additional
flexibility in setting the desired value for the delay step. The
DLL characteristics and performance are listed in Table II.
After a calibration procedure, which typically lasts less than
500 ns (see Table II), the Voltage
is set by selecting the relevant output from the multiplexers
(MUX) associated to the delay line of each channel.
is used to drive all the
1964 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004
Fig. 4. Voltage controlled delay unit.
Fig. 5.DIALOG DLL scheme.
MAIN DLL CHARACTERISTICS
Of course, in order to keep the calibration on the DLL, the
Reference Clock should be kept running during normal system
operation. This would imply to have a free running clock of
around 40 MHz on all the front-end boards. We would prefer
to avoid a high frequency clock on the analogue boards, as we
consider this quite critical for system operation.
Thesolutiontothisproblem wouldbe tostore thedetermined
into an easily storable form after calibration. The Sec-
tion III-B explains how this problem has been solved.
We use a dedicated ADC to convert the
ibration. The scheme of the so-called ADC-DLL is shown in
ADC-DLL structure. The same clock is used to drive the ADC
circuit—having an 8-bit resolution—which is based on a Suc-
cessive Approximation Register (SAR) architecture. Once the
calibration phase is concluded, the ADC conversion is started.
Finally, the converted value of
ister, which is accessible for both writing and reading via the
interface. After conversion, the clock can be switched off,
as the rest of the DIALOG circuit works without the use of a
master clock. The same 8-bit DAC of the SAR ADC is used to
reconvert the stored
bits into the voltage level needed to
set the appropriate delay on all the VCDL associated to the 16
input channels. The 8-bit DAC used in the ADC structure is the
same custom DAC used for threshold setting (Table I).
The calibration phase, comprising the conversion phase also,
lasts about 3 s. The value found for the
it is not necessary to repeat the calibration procedure every time
the system is switched on, but only write the appropriate value
onto the registers via the
Fig. 7 gives the unit delay values as a function of the ADC
code measured for different DIALOG chips. The dispersion
due to the process parameters variation is clearly visible. This
demonstrates the need for a fine-tuning via the calibration
found from cal-
is written onto an 8-bit reg-
can be uploaded
CADEDDU et al.: VLSI CHIP SET FOR TIMING OF THE LHCb MUON DETECTOR
Fig. 6.ADC-DLL scheme.
Fig. 7. Unit delay versus ADC code for different DIALOG chips.
IV. TIMING STRUCTURES AND THE SYNC CHIP
In order to use the right amount of delay compensation,
it is necessary to measure the accumulated delay channel by
channel. This task is performed inside the SYNC chip, placed
in the ODE boards. Also the SYNC chip is realized in the IBM
0.25- m technology.
Each SYNC chip houses eight channels. It contains the
pipeline memories for the L0 trigger and the interfaces to both
the L0 trigger and the subsequent trigger level (L1). Here, we
again concentrate ourselves on its timing-dedicated facilities.
Differently from DIALOG, the SYNC is housed in a com-
pletely synchronous board, working under a master clock of
40.08 MHz (the same LHC clock regulating the BX structure).
Each SYNC chip works synchronously at 40.08 MHz.
As already stated, we need to determine two values of the
the BX structure. TheBX structureis a repetitivestructure char-
acterized by a regular sequence of BX periods with and without
interactions (Fig. 8). This pattern can be used to determine the
local position of the channels with respect to the absolute time
corresponding to the experiment BX numbering. The BX struc-
received hits on dedicated counters. The start for the counters is
given by an external reset, providing the reference of the BX se-
can be compensated inside the SYNC chip, by
adding an offset to the local BX counter inside the chip itself.
This is done just before writing the incoming data onto the
pipeline memories and sending them to the L0 trigger.
The tools for
determination are described in Sec-
tions IV-A and B.
A. SYNC TDC
Just after entering the chip, the phase of the signals with re-
spect to the master clock is measured. In order to perform the
phase measurement, and build the time distribution histograms
1966 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004
Fig. 8.LHCb orbit structure at the interaction point.
Fig. 9. Conceptual scheme of the SYNC TDC.
for each SYNC channel, we developed a Time-to-Digital Con-
verter (TDC), having a time resolution of about 1.5 ns. The
SYNC TDC is based on the DLL cell already developed for
the DIALOG calibration circuit. The block scheme of the TDC
is shown in Fig. 9. The DLL is used to generate 16 de-phased
40.08 MHz clocks, starting from the chip master clock. Each
clock runs with a delay of 1.56 ns with respect to the next one.
The 16 clock signals clock continuously 16 flip-flops. When a
signal arrives, it is input to all the 16 flip-flops. As a result a cer-
tain 16 bits code is output from the registers. This is encoded
into 4 bits, being the number corresponding to the measure of
encoding operation is performed within one clock cycle, so the
circuit can process a new signal every master clock cycle. The
Fig. 10. SYNC Time histogram builder scheme.
FineTime informationis writtenontothepipeline memoriesfor
further use. The same information is used to build time distri-
butions, one for each channel.
B. Time Histograms
The time distributions are built-up inside SYNC. This allows
accumulating very high statistics without passing through the
heavy. As the Fine Time information is stored on the pipeline
memories, it can be accessed also from the acquired data, after
the normal trigger and data acquisition procedures. In such a
way, the internally built time histograms are also a powerful
crosscheck tool to monitor the correct operation of the read-out
chain at different stages.
CADEDDU et al.: VLSI CHIP SET FOR TIMING OF THE LHCb MUON DETECTOR
Time histograms are built according to the scheme of Fig. 10.
Sixteen 24-bit counters are used for each channel. The Fine
code is received, the corresponding counter is incremented by
), the counter update on all the group of 16
counters is disabled. The histograms’ content is accessible via
The shape of the registered time histograms is used to calcu-
for each channel.
System time alignment is crucial for the proper operation of
the LHCb L0 muon trigger. Dedicated tools are needed to con-
trol the system time alignment and synchronization. We have
described a number of tools for time measurement and time ad-
justment and monitoring whichwe planto use in the procedures
for synchronization of the LHCb muon system. These tools are
integrated inside two custom chips, recently developed and suc-
cessfullytested,named DIALOGand SYNC.The muonsystem
electronics will contain about 4,000 SYNC chips and 8,000 DI-
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