Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.
ABSTRACT Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.
Article: Chungsim-Yeunja-Tang decreases the inflammatory response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with cerebral infarction through an NF-κB dependent mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chungsim-Yeunja-Tang (CYT) has been used as a medicine for cerebral infarction (CI) patients in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine precisely the effect of CYT on CI patients using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). For a clinical study, 47 CI patients were identified who had taken CYT (0.01 g/kg) 3 times a day after meals for 2 weeks by oral administration. For ex vivo experiments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from CI patients. We analyzed the effect of CYT and its main components on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production and mechanism on PBMCs of CI patients by using ELISA, western blot analysis, transcription factor enzyme-linked immunoassay, and caspase assay. Clinical signs of CI significantly disappeared about 2 weeks after oral administration of CYT to CI patients (P < 0.05). CYT and quercetin, an active compound of CYT, significantly inhibited LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and expression in PBMCs. CYT and quercetin also inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-κB and degradation of IκBα. In addition, CYT and quercetin inhibited LPS-induced IL-32 expression and caspase-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism that might explain the beneficial effect of CYT in treating CI patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that inhibition of IL-32 expression and caspase-1 activation may be a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CI.Journal of Neuroinflammation 01/2010; 7:85. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Radish (Raphanus sativus L. leaf) ethanol extract inhibits protein and mRNA expression of ErbB(2) and ErbB(3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effects of the ethanol extract of aerial parts of Raphanus sativus L. (ERL) on breast cancer cell proliferation and gene expression associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of various concentrations (100, 200, or 300 µg/mL) of ERL. ERL significantly decreased cell proliferation after 48 h of incubation (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of ErbB(2) were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The protein expression of ErbB(3) was decreased significantly at an ERL concentration of 300 µg/mL (P < 0.05), and mRNA expression of ErbB(3) was decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The protein expression of Akt was decreased significantly at the ERL concentration of 200 µg/mL (P < 0.05), and the protein expression of pAkt was decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of Akt was decreased significantly at the ERL concentration of 200 µg/mL ERL (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of Bax were increased significantly at ERL concentrations of 200 µg/mL or higher (P < 0.05). The protein expression of Bcl(2) was increased significantly at ERL concentrations of 100 µg/mL or higher (P < 0.05), and mRNA expression of Bcl(2) was increased significantly at an ERL concentration of 300 µg/mL (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that Raphanus sativus, L. inhibits cell proliferation via the ErbB-Akt pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.Nutrition research and practice 08/2011; 5(4):288-93. · 1.08 Impact Factor