Article

Crystal structures of the ATPase domains of four human Hsp70 isoforms: HSPA1L/Hsp70-hom, HSPA2/Hsp70-2, HSPA6/Hsp70B', and HSPA5/BiP/GRP78.

Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2010; 5(1):e8625. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008625
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The 70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are chaperones with central roles in processes that involve polypeptide remodeling events. Hsp70 proteins consist of two major functional domains: an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD) with ATPase activity, and a C-terminal substrate binding domain (SBD). We present the first crystal structures of four human Hsp70 isoforms, those of the NBDs of HSPA1L, HSPA2, HSPA5 and HSPA6. As previously with Hsp70 family members, all four proteins crystallized in a closed cleft conformation, although a slight cleft opening through rotation of subdomain IIB was observed for the HSPA5-ADP complex. The structures presented here support the view that the NBDs of human Hsp70 function by conserved mechanisms and contribute little to isoform specificity, which instead is brought about by the SBDs and by accessory proteins. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
98 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP regulates the function of many proteins in the cell by transducing its binding and hydrolysis energies into protein conformational changes by mechanisms which are challenging to identify at the atomic scale. Based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a method is proposed to analyze the structural changes induced by ATP binding to a protein by computing the effective free-energy landscape (FEL) of a subset of its coordinates along its amino-acid sequence. The method is applied to characterize the mechanism by which the binding of ATP to the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Hsp70 propagates a signal to its substrate-binding domain (SBD). Unbiased MD simulations were performed for Hsp70-DnaK chaperone in nucleotide-free, ADP-bound and ATP-bound states. The simulations revealed that the SBD does not interact with the NBD for DnaK in its nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states whereas the docking of the SBD was found in the ATP-bound state. The docked state induced by ATP binding found in MD is an intermediate state between the initial nucleotide-free and final ATP-bound states of Hsp70. The analysis of the FEL projected along the amino-acid sequence permitted to identify a subset of 27 protein internal coordinates corresponding to a network of 91 key residues involved in the conformational change induced by ATP binding. Among the 91 residues, 26 are identified for the first time, whereas the others were shown relevant for the allosteric communication of Hsp70 s in several experiments and bioinformatics analysis. The FEL analysis revealed also the origin of the ATP-induced structural modifications of the SBD recently measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The pathway between the nucleotide-free and the intermediate state of DnaK was extracted by applying principal component analysis to the subset of internal coordinates describing the transition. The methodology proposed is general and could be applied to analyze allosteric communication in other proteins.
    PLoS Computational Biology 12/2013; 9(12):e1003379. · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The HSP70 family of molecular chaperones function to maintain protein quality control and homeostasis. The major stress-induced form, HSP70 (also called HSP72 or HSPA1A) is considered an important anti-cancer drug target because it is constitutively overexpressed in a number of human cancers and promotes cancer cell survival. All HSP70 family members contain two functional domains: an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and a C-terminal protein substrate-binding domain (SBD); the latter is subdivided into SBDα and SBDβ subdomains. The NBD and SBD structures of the bacterial ortholog, DnaK, have been characterized, but only the isolated NBD and SBDα segments of eukaryotic HSP70 proteins have been determined. Here we report the crystal structure of the substrate-bound human HSP70-SBD to 2 angstrom resolution. The overall fold of this SBD is similar to the corresponding domain in the substrate-bound DnaK structures, confirming a similar overall architecture of the orthologous bacterial and human HSP70 proteins. However, conformational differences are observed in the peptide-HSP70-SBD complex, particularly in the loop Lα, β that bridges SBDα to SBDβ, and the loop LL,1 that connects the SBD and NBD. The interaction between the SBDα and SBDβ subdomains and the mode of substrate recognition is also different between DnaK and HSP70. This suggests that differences may exist in how different HSP70 proteins recognize their respective substrates. The high-resolution structure of the substrate-bound-HSP70-SBD complex provides a molecular platform for the rational design of small molecule compounds that preferentially target this C-terminal domain, in order to modulate human HSP70 function.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e103518. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as a potentially significant source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies suggest that levels of ROS generated as a byproduct of oxidative folding rival those produced by mitochondrial respiration. Mechanisms that protect cells against oxidant accumulation within the ER have begun to be elucidated yet many questions still remain regarding how cells prevent oxidant-induced damage from ER folding events. Here we report a new role for a central well-characterized player in ER homeostasis as a direct sensor of ER redox imbalance. Specifically we show that a conserved cysteine in the lumenal chaperone BiP is susceptible to oxidation by peroxide, and we demonstrate that oxidation of this conserved cysteine disrupts BiP's ATPase cycle. We propose that alteration of BiP activity upon oxidation helps cells cope with disruption to oxidative folding within the ER during oxidative stress.
    eLife. 07/2014;

Full-text (3 Sources)

View
16 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014