Comorbidity of PTSD and depression in Korean War veterans: prevalence, predictors, and impairment.
ABSTRACT Rates of PTSD and depression are high in Korean War veterans. The prevalence and impact of the two disorders occurring comorbidly, however, has not been investigated. This paper aims to investigate the extent to which PTSD and depression co-occur in Australian veterans of the Korean War, the symptom severity characteristics of comorbidity, the impact on life satisfaction and quality, and the association with war-related predictors.
Veterans (N=5352) completed self-report questionnaires including the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the brief World Health Organisation Quality of Life questionnaire and the Combat Exposure Scale.
Seventeen percent of veterans met criteria for comorbid PTSD and depression, 15% had PTSD without depression, and a further 6% had depression without PTSD. Compared with either disorder alone, comorbidity was associated with impaired life satisfaction, reduced quality of life, and greater symptom severity. Several war-related factors were associated with comorbidity and with PTSD alone, but not with depression alone.
The reliance on self-reported measures and the necessity for retrospective assessment of some deployment-related factors renders some study data vulnerable to recall bias.
Comorbid PTSD and depression, and PTSD alone, are prevalent among Korean War veterans, are both associated with war-related factors 50 years after the Korean War, and may represent a single traumatic stress construct. The results have important implications for understanding complex psychopathology following trauma.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the degree to which PTSD affects the relationship between social support and psychological distress for U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans with and without co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Veterans (N=1,825) were administered self-report questionnaires and a structured diagnostic interview as part of a multi-site study of post-deployment mental health through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC). Main and interaction effects models assessed the association between psychological distress and social support for three comparisons conditions (Controls vs. PTSD-only, non-PTSD, and PTSD plus co-morbid diagnoses). Having PTSD was a critical factor in attenuating the strength of this association, more so than other diagnoses. Furthermore, those with PTSD plus co-morbid diagnoses did not demonstrate significantly larger attenuation in that association compared to the PTSD-only group, indicating that psychiatric comorbidity may be less important in considering the role of social support in PTSD. By understanding this relationship, new avenues for engaging and enhancing treatment outcomes related to social support for veterans of this cohort may be identified. Additional longitudinal research could help evaluate the effect of PTSD symptom clusters, social support type, and trauma exposure type on these relationships.Psychiatry Research. 06/2014;
Article: Two Koreas, war and health.International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2013; 42(4):925-9. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic disabling illness, resulting from exposure to extreme traumatic event. Although different pharmacologic agents are suggested for treatment of PTSD, none have been completely effective in eliminating symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of baclofen as an add-on to citalopram in treatment of PTSD. In this double-blind clinical trial, 40 Iranian combat veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The first group received a combination treatment of 20 to 60 mg/d citalopram and 40 mg/d baclofen, and the second group received 20 to 60 mg/d citalopram plus placebo. Symptom severity was assessed by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Global Assessment of Functioning and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression were also used at the same periods. Data were analyzed with independent t test and paired t test using SPSS software version 13 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Twenty-three male patients (baclofen group, 13 patients; placebo group, 10 patients) completed the study. Dropout from the treatment was not caused by adverse effects of the new medications in any of the subjects. Baclofen group showed significantly larger improvement in Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale total (P = 0.040), hyperarousal (P = 0.020), and avoidance (0.020) scores, Global Assessment of Functioning score (0.001), depression (P = 0.000), and anxiety (P = 0.000) after 8 weeks of treatment. No intergroup difference was found in improvement of reexperience symptoms (P = 0.740). Baclofen showed to be an effective add-on to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treatment of PTSD for better symptom recovery and functional improvement.Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 02/2014; · 5.09 Impact Factor