Las mujeres y la segunda enseñanza durante el franquismo

Historia de la educación: Revista interuniversitaria, ISSN 0212-0267, Nº 26, 2007, pags. 257-278
Source: OAI


In this article a view is given of the women who entered secondary education during the first period of the Franco regime, both from the point of view of the teaching staff and that of pupils. As is well-known, the concept and image that the regime sought for Spanish woman had nothing to do with independence and autonomy, but indeed the opposite, one of submission and dependency on men and mainly in the role of child-bearer. In this context, we were interested in finding out what kind of women went into higher secondary studies and how they fit in. Higher secondary colleges at the time were highly elitist, not only regarding social class, but also regarding the gender to which they were addressed: men of the middle and upper classes destined to being the future leaders of the country. As regards the women who taught there, who were they and why did they do it? Above all, was there really so much pressure to be only wives and mothers or was this more theoretical than real? Or was it that they simply did not feel it to be so? En este artículo pretendemos dar una visión de las mujeres que se adentraron en la segunda enseñanza durante el primer franquismo, tanto desde el punto de vista del profesorado como del alumnado. Como es de sobra conocido, el concepto e imagen que de la mujer española se quería construir nada tiene que ver con el de independencia y autonomía, sino precisamente el contrario, el de sumisión y dependencia del varón y sobre todo el de reproductora de hijos. Ante este ambiente ¿quiénes son y cómo encajan las mujeres que van a estudiar el bachillerato? Un bachillerato eminentemente elitista no sólo en cuanto a la clase social, sino también al género al que iba dirigido: varones de las capas medias y altas destinados a ser las futuras clases dirigentes del país. ¿Y las que ejercen de profesoras?, ¿quiénes son y por qué lo hacen?, pero sobre todo, ¿era, realmente, tanta la presión para que fueran esposas y madres en exclusividad?, o ¿era más teórica que real?, o ¿es que ellas simplemente no la sentían así?

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    ABSTRACT: This article is a general description of Spain's history of education and how it evolved in the 20th century. I analyze the characteristics of the educational system designed during the 19th century and the changes that took place during the country's political stages. I review the objectives and development of each teaching level, the school curricula, the professors, and their education. I also go over the extracurricular initiatives of this period and how they affected the student community. The review helps us understand the achievements that have been made and the limitations we face in the 21st century. Introduction Describing a century of education in Spain required choosing its most relevant aspects, those that showed a true picture of what was happening during the different political periods: the roles the government and the private sector played in education and its reforms, the social changes that demanded effective procedures, the objectives and consequences of the different educational models, and the quality of the results. In April 1900 the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts was created (royal decree 18 April 1900). Its objectives were to improve the educational system, as demanded by various government and social groups. The numerous problems of the 19th century had created outrage and brought claims of Spain's decline. Intellectual groups, called the Regenerationists and headed by Joaquin Costa, demanded solutions and improvements in education (Pozo Andrés, 2007; Salavert Fabiani and Suarez Cortina, 2007).
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    ABSTRACT: The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put forward specifically for female secondary schooling that sought to remove girls from the academic pathway and the reasons for their failure. Finally, the article studies the paradox posed by the fact that, despite official statements against academic education for women, the number of girls in academic secondary education and universities did not stop growing during the first Francoism. For the explanation of this paradox, it seeks to address the unwanted effects of Francoist education policy, especially the effects of social elitism and single-sex education on the presence of girls.
    Gender and Education 07/2012; 24(4):1-17. DOI:10.1080/09540253.2012.674494 · 0.46 Impact Factor


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